Nanotechnology as a drug delivery in Cancer Treatment

Picture of nanotechnology cancer

Nanotechnology as a drug delivery in Cancer Treatment

What is Cancer ?

     Cancer is a leading cause of death and remains a difficult disease to treat. It was estimated that there would be 18.1 million new cancer cases and 9.6 million cancer-related deaths by 2018 (Global cancer statistics 2018). Besides, cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation that spreads to other parts of the organs to cause death. Moreover, cancers can be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign means tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other organs meanwhile malignant can grow rapidly, invade and destroy nearby healthy tissues, and spread to whole parts of the body.  Therefore, current technology as nanotechnology are being used to treat cancer.

Picture of cancer

How Does Nanotechnology as a Drug Delivery?

A nanotechnology is a great tool in the fight against cancer. It is safer and more precise. This application has led to several promising results in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Not only that, it includes drug delivery, gene therapy, detection and diagnosis, drug carriage, biomarker mapping, targeted therapy, and molecular imaging.

The nanotechnology cancer treatments work to destroy cancer tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs, as well as the detection and elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors.

Picture of nanotechnology cancer

However, nanotechnology diagnoses and treats disease at a very tiny scale. Frankly, the particles are 100 to 10,000 times smaller than human cells. Because of their small size, they can locate and kill cancer more precisely than current cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy. However, many drugs are insoluble, so it difficult to administer. These compounds can be “solubilize” by combining them with organic or lipid nanoparticles, which keep them in circulation for longer periods, or by forming them into crystalline Nano suspensions stabilized by surfactants.

Nanotechnology treatments, for instance, the development of nanoscale drug delivery, can ensure precise cancerous tissue targeting with low side effects. Thus, it can easily cross the cell barrier due to its biological nature.

The tiny size of nanoparticles allows them to deliver medicines into which areas of the part of the human body that be hard to reach. For instance, the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier prevents foreign substances from entering into the brain and also prevents some medications from being absorbed. As a result of their small size, nanoparticles can pass through this barrier, making them a useful treatment for brain cancer.

Nanotechnology Tools Used in Cancer Diagnosis

Nanotechnology can validate cancer imaging at the tissue, cell, and molecular levels, according to current research. Its use in the development of nanomaterials, which include the following:

  1. Near Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots
  2. Nanoshells
  3. Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles

Is Nanotechnology Now in Use?

Nanotechnology has been used for more than a decade by doctors to treat cancer. For instance,  abraxane and doxil, aid in the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs.

Abraxane is a nanoparticle made of the protein albumin and the chemotherapy drug docetaxel. It inhibits the division of cancer cells. Furthermore, this medication to treat breast cancer and pancreatic cancer that already spread to other parts of the body and non-small-cell lung cancer.

Doxil known as doxorubicin will wrap in a liposome, which is a fatty sac. It disrupts cancer genes, preventing cancer cells from dividing. This drug use to treat cancers of the ovary, multiple myeloma, and Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Does Nanotechnology for Cancer Have Side Effects?

Nanotechnology more precisely targets cancer cells while sparing healthy tissues. However, nanotechnology drugs may have fewer side effects than chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the case of nanotechnology-based treatments, abraxane and doxil do cause side effects which are weight loss, nausea, and diarrhea.

References:

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                ABOUT THE AUTHOR  

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Raihan Ridzuan

Raihan Ridzuan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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How to Set up a Medical Clinic in Malaysia

How to Set up a Medical Clinic in Malaysia

How to Set up a Medical Clinic in Malaysia

After years of experience in hospitals and long working hours, are you ready to set up a medical clinic in Malaysia you can call your own?

With overcrowding being a persistent problem in the public healthcare system, Malaysians started favouring private healthcare since they provide more advanced facilities and better medical care. So, setting up a clinic would be a sensible choice.

Due to the surge in demand for private healthcare, the Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 and Regulations 2006 was formed. It constitutes a private clinic as one that is built on a non-government premise with intentions to practice medicine and treat outpatients.

treatment

It defines treatment as:

  1. Identification, diagnosis, and treatment of a patient suffering from any physical or mental ailment
  2. Preventive or promotive healthcare
  3. To provide the patient relief from any physical or mental abnormal condition prevailing in them

Hence, the Act helped to simplify the licensing and incorporation process for private healthcare services in Malaysia.

The Malaysian healthcare system is a two-tier organisation – Public Universal healthcare and Private healthcare. The Ministry of Health regulates and monitors the latter whereas, the Licensing Unit of Ministry issues licenses to clinics, private hospitals, nursing homes, and maternity homes.

A Guide on How to Set Up a Medical Clinic in Malaysia

Guide on How to Set Up a Medical Clinic

Location Selection

  • When selecting a location, consider and research:
    1. The demographic and their financial status.
    2. The population density.
    3. Residential or commercial are, as somewhere with sufficient parking is ideal.
    4. Are there other clinics in the vicinity? Because you might want to avoid too much competition.
  • Renting or owning a building is necessary.
  • If you are renting, be prepared for at least three months’ worth of rent and a well-written and reviewed rental agreement.
  • The Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 and Regulations 2006 require you to register with your respective state. The state office may accept your application after you pay a processing fee and meet all requirements. They will then issue a Letter of No Objection, permitting you to begin your clinic’s interior renovation and furnishing.

Preparing Your Medical Clinic

  • As stipulated in ACT 586, you are required to draw up your clinic’s floor plan with a contractor. Be sure to include a room list and the measurements for treatment rooms, consultation rooms, etc.
  • Amend your APC (Annual Practicing Certificate) at the Ministry of Health to include your new clinic address. The Medical Act 1971 states that medical practitioners must register with the MMC and apply for the APC every year.
  • Then, you need to obtain a license for clinic advertisement from your local council or Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The processing time is approximately two months.
  • Using your APC, open an account with manufacturing companies and place your drug supply orders.
  • Moreover, complete your staff’s EPF and SOCSO accounts beforehand.
  • Additionally, installing an x-ray machine will require a specific license.
  • Register with the Companies Commission of Malaysia under the Registration of Business Act 1956. Foreign companies will need to incorporate their company under the Companies Act 2016 to set up a private practice in Malaysia.

Once everything is in place, you are ready to open a medical clinic!

Look no further for a pharmaceutical supplier. Mayflax has over 25 years of experience in the field, so register with us and gain access to over 2000 products at affordable prices. We carry brands ranging from Pfizer to Novartis. Make your order and your delivery is on their way!

Please contact us for any inquiries.

How to become a panel clinic?

The picture of doctor

How to become a panel clinic ?

The picture of doctor

What is panel clinic ?

Panel clinic is provide medical treatment for any Insured Person under SOCSO due to ‘Employment injury ’.

‘Occupational Injury’ is known as an employee who suffers from accident or current occupational illness at their workplace.

The Insured Person known as an employer. The employer can refer to the list of clinics to receive emergency treatments. Furthermore, there are  following documents to fill in the Accident Report form, Occupational disease reports, or a cover letter from the employer.

How to register as a Panel Clinic for Insured Person ?

  1. Letter of application together with a proposal clinic and clinic profile
  2. Copy of Identity card of every doctor
  3. Copies of recognized training occupational health certificates.
  4. Copy of Form (Latest Annual Practising Certificate (APC) for every doctor)
  5. Copy of Form (Certificate of Registration)
  6. Copies of Form (Certification to Establish / Maintain / Handle / Provide Private Medical Care / Clinic)
  7. Panel List – Company or employer who appoints panel clinic.
  8. Treatment quotation.

Examples Of Occupational Health Training Certificate :-

  • Certificate In Occupational Medicine (MEDICAL PROGRESS INSTITUTE)
  • Workshop on Occupational Health  (NIOSH)
  • Graduate Diploma in Occupational Health (UKM)
  • Occupational Health Doctor (Module 1) (NIOSH)
  • Examination Doctors Health (NIOSH)
  • Occupational Health Course For Medical Practitioners (AOEM)

Insurance Benefits for Employees

Employee benefits are optional compensation rather than wages which given to employees  to their fixed payment as addition. It covers health, dentistry, vision, life, and others.

Disability income also a protection plans, retirement benefits, childcare, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, vacation, education funding, and flexible and alternative work arrangements.

However, the purpose of medical benefits for employees in Malaysia is to improve the economic security of staff members. As well as, to increase employee retention throughout the organization.

Furthermore, the employee benefits will increase the  productivity in the workplace because they feel assured.

Moreover, employees with life insurance and personal injury can also use additional coverage such as income replacement to their serious illness or serious disability.

Four common types of Medical Benefits for Employees in Malaysia

  • Medical insurance

Medical insurance plans include hospital visits, doctor visits, surgeries, prescriptions, and possibly vision and dental. Therefore, as an employer, you will cover most of the premium.

  • Life insurance

For a company, if your employee accidently dies, life insurance will provide compensation to the employee’s named beneficiaries. They will help to bear the cost of the funeral and the ongoing cost of living to employee’s family.

  • Disability Insurance

The offer has short-term and long-term disability insurance. Even if your employee is injured or suffering from chronic illness, these benefits provide a payment throughout the period your employee is unable to work. Therefore, companies can add Critical Illnesses Plans riders to GTL plans.

  • Retirement Benefits

The retirement benefits is the most common type that allows the employee to deduct the amount of salary that needs to be paid for retirement savings. Meanwhile, some companies will choose one amount to match for the deduction.

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Raihan Ridzuan

Raihan Ridzuan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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Anxiety and Depression- Mayflax

Therapeutic potential in COVID-19 with colchicine

Cr. Fusion Medical Animation

Source from MIMS.com

Based on a study, survival rate in patients with COVID-19 was improved with the use of colchicine, which are usually used for the treatment of gout and other inflammatory disorders as compared with standard of care (SoC).

The well-recognised anti-inflammatory effects and potential antiviral properties made it as one of the drugs that was considered for the treatment of COVID-19.  140 hospitalized patients who contracted COVID-19 had their outcomes evaluated as they were treated with SoC (hydroxychloroquine and/or intravenous dexamethasone; and/or lopinavir/ritonavir) and in 122 patients treated with colchicine and SoC.

The SoC group, have lower serum concentrations of C-reactive prottein and ferritin, as well as neutrophil count but higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio at baseline.

Survival when being compared over 21 days of follow-up, it was more favourable in the colchicine than the SoC group. A lower risk of death was strongly associated with colchicine, on Cox proprortional hazards regression (hazard ratio, 0.151).

At entry, there were a higher serum levels of ferritin, worse Pa02/Fi02 and poor survival at older age for the risk factors. 

With no treatment discontinuation due to severe adverse events, colchicine had a good safety profile. In nine patients, dosing was reduced from 1 to 0.5 mg/day due to diarrhoea.

With the aim of preventing the patient’s autoinflammatory response, the current study provides proof-of-concept data supporting the possible use of colchicine in the treatment of the early phase of COVID-19.

To determine the efficacy and safety of colchicine, properly designed trials are needed with the best protocol in terms of dosage and timing of administartion in patients with COVID-19, said the researchers.

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Easy treatment for headaches

Cr. Adrian Swancar

Source from Healthline.com

Headache is defined as a pain arising from the head or upper neck of the body. The pain originates from the tissues and structures that surround the skull or the brain because the brain itself has no nerves that give rise to the sensation of pain (pain fibers). Several types of headaches exist, with tension headaches being the most common. Cluster headaches are painful and happen in groups or “clusters,” while migraines are a moderate-to-severe type of headache.

Keeping hydrate : The body need certain amount of fluid for it to properly function and by drinking too little, it may lead you to develop a headache. Researchers have found that the common cause of migraines and tension headaches mostly come from chronic dehydration. This can be relieved by drinking enough water which shown to relieve symptoms in dehydrated individuals within 30 minutes to three hours –  depending on their state.

Cr. LuAnn Hunt

Cr. Annie Spratt

Taking magnesium : A study suggests that treatment with 600mg of oral magnesium citrate per day helps in reducing the frequency and severity of migraine headaches. Headaches could be cured with prescribed medicines and can be prevented with consuming food that have high content of magnesium such as pumpkin seed, broccoli and certain amount of beans.

Limiting alcohol intake : Evidence shown that alcohol can trigger migraines in about one-third of individuals who experience frequent headaches. It also cause tension and cluster headaches in many people. Alcohol is a vasodilator, which widens blood vessels and allows more flow of the blood which may cause headaches in some people. The body could lose fluids and electrolytes from frequent urination as alcohol also acts as a diuretic which can cause or worsen headaches.

Cr. Giovanna Gomes

Cr. Gregory Pappas

Getting enough sleep : Sleeping less than you required can be detrimental to your health and may even cause headaches in some people. It is found that people who has sleep deprivation had more frequent and severe headaches but getting too much sleep has also been shown to trigger headaches. It is advised to have a minimum of 6 hours sleep a day, depending on the individual.

Practice yoga : One of the ways to relieve stress and improve your overall quality of life would be relaxing with yoga. A study was conducted and it showed that the effects of yoga therapy on 60 people with chronic migraines were reduced more than those who received conventional care alone.

Cr. Kiki Vega

Cr. Peter Secan

Having caffeinated liquid : Drinking beverages with caffeine such as tea or coffee may provide relief for a headache. It improves mood, increases alertness and constricts blood vessels. It also helps increase the effectiveness of common medications like acetaminophen and ibuprofen which are used to treat headaches with mindful caffeine intake.

Exercise : Increasing your activity level is said  to be one of the simplest ways in reducing headaches. A study which involved 91 people in 40 minutes of indoor cycling, three times a week was effective in reducing headache frequency than practicing relaxation techniques.

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Sip some ginger tea : Ginger root has many beneficial compounds, including antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances and they also helps reducing nausea and vomiting, which usually are the common symptoms associated with severe headaches.

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TB antibiotics in reaching targets

Cr. Simone van der Koelen

Source from Sciencedaily.com

Researchers have built up another technique that empowers them to envision how well antibiotics against tuberculosis (TB) reach at their pathogenic targets inside human hosts. The discoveries, published in the journal Science, boost understanding of how antibiotics work and could help direct the development of new antibiotics, which are truly necessary in the fight against drug-resistance.

TB treatment

TB stays as one of the world’s deadliest infectious diseases, with over a million TB-related deaths worldwide every year.

At the point when an individual is infected with Mtb (mycobacteria), their immune system attempts to clear the microorganism by calling upon specialised immune cells called as macrophages that perceive and engulf Mtb. However, the bacteria frequently discover ways to survive and duplicate, causing illness. Patients require at least four antibiotics for at six months to defeat the disease.

It was previously unknown whether antibiotics enter all the compartments of the macrophage where the Mtb hide and duplicate.

The method pioneered in this study, which consolidates three kinds of imaging (correlated light, electron and nano-scale ion microscopy), permits researchers to picture the circulation of TB drugs in Mtb-infected human macrophages at high resolution, for the first time.

A test-case TB drug

Utilizing bedaquiline as an test-case, the group contaminated human macrophages with Mtb, and following up after two days, they treated them with the medication. Their imaging results revealed that bedaquiline accumulated in various compartments of the cell, most eminently, inside lipid droplets.

The bacteria can interact with and consume these lipid droplets. Be that as it may, the group (Crick-led team) didn’t know whether bedaquiline would be moved to the bacteria, or whether the lipid droplets were retaining the antibiotic and keeping it from arriving at the bacteria. Including a chemical that kept lipid droplets from forming significantly decreased the measure of bedaquiline in Mtb, proposing that the lipid drops are responsible for moving antibiotic to the bacteria.

“Now that we can see exactly where antibiotics go once they enter macrophages, we can build up a much clearer picture of how they reach their targets, and harness these observations to design more effective treatments in the future, not only for TB but for other infectious diseases too” says Max Gutierrez, Crick group leader and senior author of the paper.

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