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Bloodborne Infectious Diseases: Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention

Needlestick injury picture

A needlestick injury (NSI), also known as a percutaneous injury, occurs when a needle accidentally punctures the skin. Most commonly happen to occupational hazards involving a health care worker.

Approximately 35.7 million health care workers worldwide are exposed to NSI risk, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) data. Hence, the most worrying consequence of NSI is the transmission of blood-borne pathogens that cause serious or even fatal infections.

Needlestick injury picture

As a result, the pathogens found in the blood are as follows:

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Besides that, the WHO, the annual global estimated proportion of health care workers exposed to these infections was:

Occupational ExposureRisk of Transmission
1. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV0.5%
2. Hepatitis B virus, (HBV)2.6%
3. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)5.95%

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard consists of regulations designed to protect occupationally exposed health care workers. So, the healthcare employers must implement adequate safety measures under the OSHA where there is occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials.

Who is at risk of needlestick injury?

Needlestick with syringe cappicture

Generally, a number of studies have shown that nurses are the most likely to suffer needlestick injuries. In addition, workers who come into contact with needles, such as laboratory workers, doctors, and housekeepers, are also at risk.

Types of needles usually cause needlestick injuries?

  • Blood collection needles
  • Hypodermic needles
  • Needles used in intravenous (IV) administration
  • Suture needles

How do needlestick injuries occur?

Frankly, injuries may occur at any stage of their use, dismantling, or disposal. Such as:

  • Recapping needles
  • Not properly disposing of used needles in sharps containers
  • Blood collection (for instance, while taking the patient’s blood)
  • Incorrect use of safety-engineered sharps

Ways to reduce the risk of needlestick injuries

In the meantime, many people believe that prevention is better than cure. It is clear that preventing injuries is the most effective way to protect workers.

Aside from that, getting a hepatitis B vaccination is also important for preventation. Honestly, HBV vaccine has proved highly effective in preventing infection in workers. However, there are no vaccine exists to prevent HCV or HIV infection.

How to dispose of sharps?

sharp bin

Moreover, to avoid the injuries, used needles should be disposed of promptly in appropriate sharp disposal containers.

Thus, you can use your sharps bin to dispose of medical supplies for instance:

  • needles
  • syringes
  • lancets used with finger-pricking devices
  • clippers

Other than that, please keep the sharps bin in a safe place so it does not pose a risk to other people. Also, out of the sight and reach of children.

If you experience a needlestick or sharps injury or are exposed to the blood or other bodily fluids of a patient while working, suggestions include:

  • Firstly, wash the injured area right away after exposure with running water and mild soap.
  • Secondly, flush splashes to the nose, mouth, eyes or skin with sterile saline or water.
  • Next, immediately report the incident to your respective supervisor or officer in-charge.
  • Last, head to the closest emergency hospital as soon as possible.

If you are searching for pharmaceutical supplier that provide more than 2,000 drug products over 25 years of experience, then Mayflax is the best choice for your medicinal needs. Visit our website to learn more about our services.

About the author

Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a Customer Relationship Executive of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing companies.

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Post-COVID-19: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)

MIS-C in children

According to the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Covid-19 (MIS-C) Malaysian Study Group found that a total of 174 cases were identified. Furthermore, about 57% of the total cases are among children aged 5-11 years between June 2020 and December 2021.

Consequently, a large number require critical care in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). In addition, seven cases have been confirmed as dead.

MIS-C in children

What is a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)?

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), in other words known as a pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome because it usually happens in children than older people.

This syndrome is actually a post-infectious complication of covid-19. Thus, we can see the syndrome develop after several weeks when kids get infected with the virus.

Besides that, Sick-Samuels says that MIS-C have signs and symptoms similar to toxic shock syndrome called Kawasaki disease, which both cause inflammation throughout the body such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs.

Moreover, the symptoms can be milder or very serious. As a result, require urgent medical care.

Symptoms of MIS-C?

  • A fever (exceed more than four days)
  • Red eyes
  • Rash
  • Vomiting and diarrhea
  • Cracked lips
  • Enlarged lymph node
  • Swollen hands or feet
  • Neck pain
  • Cough and shortness of breath
  • Dizziness and fatigue
  • Loss of odor and taste
  • Fast heartbeat

Above all, if he is experiencing any of this symptoms and getting even worse. Very bad belly pain, looking bluish on the lips or face, confusion, or inability to wake or stay awake for instance. Then, immediately take them to the nearest emergency department or call 911 or your local emergency number.


Diagnosis of MIS-C

As stated before, the symptoms of MIS-C are similar like Kawasaki disease. So, to differentiate, doctors will perform certain tests that look for signs of inflammation in the body. For examples:

  • Covid-19 test
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Chest x-ray
  • Electrocardiogram (measures electrical activity in the heart)
  • Echocardiogram (Heart ultrasound)
  • Abdominal ultrasound
  • Other tests, depending on signs and symptoms

MIS-C Treatment

Furthermore, kids with the MIS-C syndrome need to monitor for their health by a medical providers at the hospital. Meanwhile, some of them might be admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to their critical conditions. 

The doctor will provide medicines such as:-

  1. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
  2. Corticosteroids
    • Glucocorticoids such as methylprednisolone
    • Tocilizumab
  3. Antiplatelet /Anticoagulant therapy
    • Aspirin
  4. Antibiotics
    • Ceftriaxone + vancomycin
    • Clindamycin
  5. Antiviral therapy
    • Remdesivir

supportive care may include, for instance:

  1. Intravenous Fluids (dehydration)
  2. Ventilator
  3. In very rare cases, use extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO

Moreover, children need to be followed up after discharge from the hospital. Nonetheless, the period of full recovery is about six months. Also, no further follow-up if there are no serious complications. 

Apart from that, MIS-C is a treatable condition and most children recover entirely from the disease. Hence, with prompt attention, medications can control the inflammation and help prevent long-term organ damage, especially the heart.

Is it necessary to vaccinate children against COVID-19?

Yes. Vaccines protect children from developing serious complications like multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), which infects other organs with inflammation.

However, when your kids diagnose with MIS-C, the doctor must hold the vaccine from being injected. This is because the COVID-19 vaccine needs to be delayed for at least 90 days until they are fully recovered.

The Ministry of Health (Malaysia) is implementing the COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5 to under 12 years old starting in February 2022. So, the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty® 10 mcg Concentrate for Dispersion (PfizerBioNTech) will be used.

To conclude, the results of a clinical study of this vaccine showed an effectiveness of 90.7% as well as the ability to enhance a high immune response to COVID-19 disease. Therefore, the complete dose requires two vaccine dose injections with an interval of eight (8) weeks after the first dose.

MIS-C cases picture

Diagram of MIS-C cases

To read more articles or information about health management, our Mayflax provides the best articles for you. Feel free to click here!

About the author

Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a Customer Relationship Executive of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing companies.

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Pharmacists Expanding Their Role in Preventive Health Care

Pharmacist picture
Pharmacist picture

The role of pharmacists in the business has to evolves the model changes to meet the needs of the health care delivery system.

Today, pharmacists not just only manage medication systems like drug dispensing, pharmaceutical information, compound medicines, and ensure the accuracy of drug labels.

But, they can also provide patients with health monitoring and consultancy, as well as evaluate the need for clinical medication management for those with undiagnosed diseases.

Pharmacy is the third largest healthcare profession. Although Pharmacists are among the most accessible and visited healthcare professionals worldwide, yet their contributions to interdisciplinary healthcare settings are often overlooked.

In addition, lack of communication and relationship between healthcare professionals can create bad patient care, and lead to drug-related problems (DRPs). As a result, poorer health outcomes and experiences.

What they can do for a better health care delivery system?

The Pharmacist’s Role in Primary Care

A pharmacist’s responsibilities in primary care include providing direct patient care through medication management, examinations and screenings, managing chronic disease, drug information and education, collaboration, quality assurance, and research.

However, clinical pharmacists could make an important contribution to improving people’s health in their daily practice, For example:

  • Promoting prevention and identifying patients who are at risk of chronic illnesses.
  • Managing people with long-term health conditions like hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Ensure that medications are used safely and appropriately.
  • Give advice on living a healthy lifestyle.
  • Advising people who are eligible for NHS Health Checks.
  • Supporting public health campaigns
  • Providing expert knowledge on all public health programs available to the general public like vaccination and smoking cessation.

The ways pharmacists in preventive health care services:

The biggest ways pharmacists can be a victory in preventive care is by expanding services. One of its services is that disease prevention also helps your pharmacy succeed and serve the community.

Pharmacists play a key role in providing immunization services and identifying vaccine candidates. 

1. Vaccination

Flu vaccine picture

As a result of state legislation or practice agreements, pharmacists’ positions have been expanding, including the ability to administer immunizations. Furthermore, community pharmacists have been offering the seasonal flu vaccine as an advanced service under the pharmacy contract framework since 2015, complementing GP services.

Hence, the number of seasonal flu vaccinations has been rising every year. So, from September 2018 to March 2019, pharmacists provided 1,431,538 flu vaccinations, which increased patient options.

2. Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

The pharmacist also play an important role in identifying people with undiagnosed high blood pressure by conducting opportunistic tests for blood pressure and pulse rhythm testing.

Besides that, to support pharmacists in the primary care network, The NHS Long Term Plan sets out that the NHS will help them to find cases and treat people with conditions that have a high risk of developing CVD. So, preventative care can be provided promptly.

CVD NHS health check

3. NHS Health checks

NHS Health Check is design to improve health and wellbeing among adults ages 40-74 by detecting and managing individual risk factors for vascular disease and other conditions.

To maximize the impact of NHS Health Checks, pharmacy teams can:
  • Offering NHS Health Checks to eligible people that they can get a free check-up.
  • Handling patients who are eligible for an NHS Health Check should be referred if the service is not available on site.
  • Referring patients who have had an NHS Health Check to local behaviour change support services or back to the General Practitioner (GP) for appropriate clinical management, if they do not show the behaviour change support.
NHS health check

4. Blood pressure and atrial fibrillation

Hypertension is a serious condition that increase the risks of cardiovascular disease, lead to mortality. Across the nation, an estimated 5.6 million people suffer from hypertension without being diagnosed.

Hypertension undiagnosed

Pharmacy teams are well position to help identify the 5 million people with undiagnosed high blood pressure. Moreover, pharmacist can consult the patient with the lifestyle changes and benefit from appropriate clinical management. Besides, identifying people with Atrial Fibrillation (AF) by checking their pulse rhythms.

A pharmacist can help treat high blood pressure by:
  • Providing NHS Health Checks such as opportunistic blood pressure tests and pulse rhythm screening for patients and clients.
  • Referring patients who have high blood pressure to a healthy lifestyle or back to the GP for appropriate health management.
  • Managing blood pressure through medication and modifying risk factors.

The management of blood pressure by pharmacists is effective. 

5. Diet and obesity

Obesity is a complex disease that involves an excessive amount of body fat. It is a health problem that increases the risk of other diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.  Moreover, pharmacy teams can  advice the public about healthy eating messages through the use of the Eatwell Guide according to age, sex, and lifestyle.

Eatwell guide picture
Pharmacist could:
  • Educate and provide weight management programs and fitness regimens.
  • Health promotion activities such as education activities with invited speakers, such as dieticians.
  • Help customers to calculate their Body Mass Index (BMI).

Pharmacists are encouraged to use their expertise to help communities to choose healthy foods and understand labels. Then, spread awareness to customers about a broad range of supplements and diet products. Also, tell them some of which are unlikely to be benefit to the majority of the population.

6. Substance misuse

Community pharmacists are in a good position to point out and support people misusing drugs by:

  • Identifying people who might be getting into problems with over-the-counter, as many people addicted to illicit drugs.
  • Participating in or contributing to the development of substance abuse prevention and assistance programs within healthcare organizations.
  • Collaborate with outpatient and ambulatory care providers to prevent substance abuse after discharge.
  • Providing pharmaceutical care to patients who are being treated for substance abuse and dependency.
  • Giving recommendations about the appropriate use of mood-altering substances to healthcare providers and the public, including those persons recovering from substance dependency and their caregivers.

7. Maternity and early years

Improving women’s health during pregnancy by reducing inequalities for all mothers and babies to protect the health of a baby in the future to ensure fetal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, pharmacists can help women understand the potentials risks associated with medication use and assist them with various areas of preconception and prenatal care. For instance, immunizations, folic acid use, and management of chronic diseases.

maternity picture
Preventive care for maternity:
  • Improve preconception health for women of childbearing age to improve wellbeing and reduce risk factors.
  • To increase the number of smoke free pregnancies, pharmacy teams can provide guidance by implementing the NICE guidelines.
  • Pharmacy teams could improve perinatal mental health by promoting good mental health, identifying and supporting perinatal depression, and providing referrals to appropriate services.
  • Promote a healthy weight and nutrition such as vitamin D and folic acid.
  • Pharmacists guide breastfeeding mothers regarding the use of both over-the-counter and prescription medicines.
  • Promote uptake of pertussis and influenza immunization for all pregnant women and immunization programs for children in their early years.

In conclusion

It is evident that pharmacy teams play an integral role in improving public health within all communities. Since pharmacies play a significant role in preventing and promoting health, they will remain a valuable and important resource for as long as these challenges persist.

Therefore, pharmacies are well positioned. It can create awareness and support healthy behaviour in patients with long term conditions, as they have regular contact with community pharmacies to collect their prescribed medicines.

Moreover, if you are looking for health care tips and clinical services, you can visit and  follow our page Mayflax to get more info!

About the author

Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a Customer Relationship Executive of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing companies.

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Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: What scientists know so far

Omicron variant picture

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant: What scientists know so far

Table of Contents

The Omicron appears to be a concern today. This virus is very popular among us and has caught our attention due to its unusual mutations. Some are rare and have never existed before.

In late November, the World Health Organization (WHO) classified this variant as a point of concern. A growing number of the cases are being reported across the country at the moment.

But what do we know about this virus so far?

What is the Omicron variant?

Omicron variant

Mutations of a virus are inevitable. A new SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529), was reported to WHO on 24 November 2021 from South Africa, raising alarms among researchers and the global community.

In the bronchi (lung airways), Omicron replicates 70 times faster than Delta, but evidence suggests it is less severe than previous strains.

How did it get its name?

Omicron is the Greek letter “O”, and was named after the 15th letter of the alphabet.

The World Health Organization name the virus as omicron to makes public communication easier, less confusing, and stigma. If using scientific names for the variants, it can be difficult to say and recall. They want it to be simple and accessible to others.

Here are the five current variants:

Types of Covid virus
  • Alpha – B.1.1.7 (United Kingdom)
  • Beta – B.1.351 (South Africa)
  • Gamma – P.1 (Brazil)
  • Delta – B.1.617.2 (India)
  • Omicron – B.1.1.529 (South Africa)

The Delta variant is currently the dominant strain all over the world.

Where does the Omicron come from?

Maps of where omicron came from

This variant is found in South Africa. Over the past few weeks, the Omicron version is spreading throughout the world, faster than any previously known variant.

What are the signs and symptoms of Omicron?

The Omicron variant can infecting person with the symptoms that are similar to the previous covid-19.

All of the variants, including delta and omicron, cause similar COVID-19 symptoms, like cough, fever, and fatigue. There is some evidence that fewer people is losing their taste and smell. Besides that, this virus less likely to causing  pneumonia that may require oxygen treatments in the hospital.

symptoms of omicron variant

Symptoms of Omicron variant

Based on the analysis, neither Delta nor Omicron showing any clear differences in symptom profiles. About 50% experience common signs such as fever, cough, and loss of taste or smell.

Dr. Rahul Sharma from the emergency physician-in-chief at the New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center said “We’re seeing a lot of sore throat, runny nose, fatigue and mild headache,”.

How fast Omicron spread compared with other variants?

Omicron variants are spreading two or three times faster than Delta.

The earliest evidence for the rapid spread is from South Africa, where it is growing rapidly to dominate one region after another. In other countries, researchers view the cases are doubling every 2 to 4 days.

As a result, the country recording 3,402 cases on 26 November. Then on December 1, it increased to 8,561 cases.

The omicron variant is it more severe than other covid-19 variants?

Bollinger said, “For omicron, there is less data on this,”

Moreover, Omicron is a mutant virus that is still in early stages. World Health Organization classifying Omicron as a Variant of Concern (VOC). This mutation increase transmissibility, and disease severity. 

For your information, Omicron is mutated with 43 spike protein mutations compared to Delta is about 18 spikes.

WHO picture

The World Health Organization (WHO)

Early findings suggest that there is a reduced risk of hospitalization for Omicron variant. According to the WHO, an increase in transmission can lead to more hospitalizations.

Thus, it is important to remember that all variants of COVID-19 can cause severe disease or may result in death.  Our responsible is preventing the spread and reducing the risk of exposure to the virus is so important right now.

This variant is spreading and infecting other countries. For further study, they need to conduct more research to collect various types of data. The Omicron cases are rising, so the large size of sample such as geographical for researchers can increase a chance for generalizing early reports.

Meanwhile, scientists measured the severity of a coronavirus variant by examining the number of people infected in the hospital. The Delta variant turned out to be much worse than the Omicron variant.

A British study found that the risk of hospitalization due to Omicron is half of the delta.

Is the covid-19 vaccine effective against omicron?

Scientists are studying any potential effects of Omicron variants on the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine. Information is still scarce. However, the effectiveness of vaccines against mild, severe illness and death, may be declining.

Moreover, the WHO reports that, so far, the booster vaccines available provide significant protection against serious disease and death.

For now, it is important to be vaccinated to protect against Omicron and other variants. So, when your turn to get vaccinated make sure you get the doses in order to have the maximum protection to protect yourself and those around you.

Do current boosters provide better protection against omicron?

Yes. Because several studies show that people with full vaccination plus a booster shot have strong protection against the Omicron variant. Without a booster shot, two doses of a vaccine-like Pfizer-BioNTech’s or Moderna’s became less protection to our immune system. 

Booster doses

Covid-19 Booster

To see whether the booster improves protection or not, scientists collect blood from patients who are fully vaccine and mix their antibodies with Omicron in a petri dish containing human cells.

Consequently, every vaccine tested so far has performed worse at neutralizing Omicron than other variants. Not only that, antibodies from people who received two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine or one dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine do not seem to have any effect on Omicron at all.

But when researchers tested antibodies from people who had received boosters of Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines, they saw a different picture. Many Omicron viruses were blocked from infecting cells by boosted antibodies.

The researchers found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had a 80%  efficacy against Omicron infection.

Can vaccines reduce the severity of Covid?

As I mentioned above, in a large study of more than a million cases of Covid, British researchers found that people who had received booster doses were 81 percent less likely to be admitted to the hospital, compared to people who have not been vaccinated yet.

Those who had received two doses of vaccine had a 65% lower risk of being admitted to a hospital.

How antibodies fight Omicron variant?

Additionally, even people who have had vaccines may be at risk of infection with Omicron. For instance, the variant can evade antibodies produced by vaccines and multiply in the nose and throat. But vaccines not only trigger the production of antibodies against coronavirus, they also stimulate the growth of T cells that help fight a specific disease.

T cells antibody

T cells learn to recognize when other cells are infected with specific viruses and destroy the pathogen. As a result, the infection becomes slow.

To determine how well the Covid-19 vaccine fight Omicron, scientists do research on T cells that produce by the vaccine. Researchers found that these T cells are able to recognize the Omicron variants.

In addition, this preliminary evidence indicates that Omicron infections enable to penetrate the T-cell barrier. By killing infected cells, T cells may make it harder for Omicron to reach into the airway inside the lung tissue.

Are the current covid-19 tests detecting the omicron variant?

a Covid-19 test

Commercial diagnostic PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and available antigen COVID tests can be uses to identify and detect the omicron variant. And yet, we will know more in the coming weeks about how well the rapid at-home tests to detect a new variant.

How long does omicron last on surfaces?

The WHO states that COVID can be transmitted through close personal contact as well as through aerosols in crowded areas and poorly ventilated environments.

Furthermore, people can get the viruses by touching their eyes, nose, or mouth after coming into contact with contaminated objects or surfaces.

viruses on surface

Japanese researchers found that Omicron is the most easily transmitted variant of SARS-CoV-2, but a new study found this virus survives longer than any previous variant on plastic surfaces and skin.

Hence, Omicron stays on plastic for about 8 days and on the skin for less than 24 hours.

What can we do to protect ourselves and our families from the omicron variant?

The most important thing we can do is reduce the risk of exposure to the virus. Make the following precautions to protect ourselves and our loved ones:

  • Wear proper mask

Wear masks that meet a standard with multiple layers of non-woven material such as a 3ply face mask that covers your nose and mouth. Make sure that your hands are clean when you put on and remove your mask.

  • Physical distance

Keeping a distance of one meter helps limit the spread of COVID-19. Recommended by the World Health Organization.

  • Avoid poorly ventilated and crowded spaces.

Indoor air quality, ventilation, and occupancy have become growing concerns in the battle to slow the spread of COVID-19. 

  • Open windows to improve ventilation indoors.

If it’s safe to do so, open doors and windows as much as possible to let in fresh air from outside.

  • Wash your hands regularly.

You can help yourself and your loved ones stay healthy by washing your hands often, especially during this pandemic.

  • Get a shot

When it’s your turn, get vaccinated. WHO-approved COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective.

  • Do Covid tests

Performing Covid tests at home regularly using a device that can detect variants

Precautions such as those outlined above will help prevent the spread of Omicron.

After all, researchers are trying to understand the Omicron variant. “We still have a lot to learn about omicron,” Ray said. WHO will continue to closely monitor the Omicron variant and update it with more information.

In order to protect ourselves from being infected with this virus, we need to do a covid test when we feel unwell or meet a lot of people.

However, test devices can be inaccurate, you should use the one  recommended by the WHO. You can buy it at any pharmacy and medical supplier like Mayflax. Mayflax provides a covid-19 self-test kit and you can purchase with us. If you want to know more, click here.

About the author

Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a Customer Relationship Executive of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing companies.

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Diarrhoea Awareness: What You Should Know About Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. 

In most cases, diarrhoea usually lasts for a couple of days. 

Diarrhoea occurs when the lining of the intestine is unable to absorb fluid. It can also occur when it actively secretes fluid.

Causes of Diarrhoea

Certain conditions may cause diarrhoea. There are:

  • Viruses:  These includes Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus, and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhoea.
  • Lactose intolerance: Lactose is a form of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Normally, the body will make an enzyme that helps to digest lactose. However, some people have difficulty digesting lactose, resulting in diarrhoea.
  • Medications: Many medications, such as antibiotics also can cause diarrhoea. They disturb the natural balance of bacteria in the intestines thus causing this condition.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diarrhoea includes:

  • Loose, watery stools
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Blood in the stool
  • Bloating
  • Nausea

Although diarrhoea is a common condition, the awareness of its management is still low.

This debilitating condition can cause dehydration which may be life-threatening if left untreated.

It is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weak immune systems. 

In fact, CDC reports 1 in 9 child death is due to diarrhoea.

So, it is really important to increase hydration when experiencing this condition.

If you have signs of serious dehydration, do seek medical help.


There are 3 types of drugs used to treat diarrhoea:

  • Antimotility Agents: Diphenoxylate + Atropine (Lomotil) , Loperamide
  • Adsorbents: Aluminium Hydroxide, Methylcellulose
  • Agents That Modify Fluid and Electrolyte Transport: Bismuth Subsalicylate
However, it is advisable to get doctor’s or pharmacist’s consultation before taking these medications.


Besides conducting a physical exam and reviewing medications, the doctor might order tests to determine what’s causing diarrhoea.

These tests include:

  • Blood test: A complete blood count test can help determine what’s causing diarrhoea.
  • Stool test:  A doctor might recommend a stool test to determine whether a bacterium or parasite is causing diarrhoea.


Some types of diarrhoea can very easily be passed on to other people. 

Transmission can occur via dirty hands, contaminated food as well as pets.

Likewise, do not prepare food for people if you are suffering from diarrhoea since you may be transmitting the disease through the food you prepare.

So, it is crucial to wash hands thoroughly with warm water and soap after going to the toilet and also before food preparation. 

Moreover, hand sanitisers are useful when you are not near a sink to wash your hand.

On the other hand, children mustn’t go to school or childcare when they are having diarrhoea.

Though diarrhoea is a common condition experienced by most people at least two to three times a year, the awareness of its management is still low.

Hence, it is crucial to increase awareness by practising the precautions and teaching our children to do the same. 

We at Mayflax also provides drug for diarrhoea such as Lomotil and Bismol. Feel free to contact us here to get our fast and effective services.


How to Control Asthma

What is Asthma?

Asthma happens when your airways narrow, swell or produce excessive mucus. 

This disease makes breathing difficult and may cause a wheezing sound when breathing. 

Ultimately, it can cause shortness of breath.

Although this disease cannot be cured, its symptoms can be managed.

Asthma often changes over time, so you must cooperate with your doctor to trace your signs and symptoms.

Asthma Trigger Factors

Not all the things that can cause asthma are known. 

However, we do know that genetic, environmental, and occupational factors have been linked to developing this disease.

An asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “triggers.” 

Triggers can be very different from person to person.

When you can’t avoid your triggers, be aware of an asthma attack.

Some of the most common triggers include:

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Dust mites
  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Cockroach allergen
  • Pets fur
  • Mould
  • Weather

Know your triggers and learn how to avoid them.

Sign and Symptoms of Asthma

Symptoms of this disease vary from person to person. 

You may have infrequent attacks, have symptoms only at certain times such as when exercising, or have symptoms all the time.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Wheezing when exhaling, which is a common sign of asthma in children
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu.

Seek Emergency Treatment

Severe attacks can be life-threatening.

Consult with your doctor to determine what to do when your signs and symptoms worsen and if you need emergency treatment. 

Signs of an asthma emergency include:

  • Rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing
  • No improvement even after using a quick-relief inhaler
  • Shortness of breath when you are doing minimal physical activity

Prevention and Management

Take your medicine as prescribed by your doctor to avoid having serious conditions. 

Most importantly, try to stay away from things that can trigger an attack.

Different asthma conditions will result in different medical treatments.

Some medicine can be taken through inhalation and others orally.

Asthma medicines come in two types. 

They are quick-relief and long-term control. 

Quick-relief medicines control the symptoms whereas long-term control medicine help to reduce the number of attacks. 

However, long-term control medications do not provide quick relief when having an attack.

Asthma medicines may have some side effects, but most side effects are mild and usually go away quickly. You may ask your doctor for clarification about the side effects of your medicines.

Remember, asthma can be controlled. 

Make an action plan based on your doctor’s guidance. 

Take your long-term control medicine together with you even when you don’t have symptoms.

Mayflax has more than 25 years of experience as a pharmaceutical company in Malaysia. We provide various drugs for various diseases. Feel free to contact us here to procure our services.


How to Identify Counterfeit Drugs in Online Pharmaceutical Trades

How to Identify Counterfeit Drugs in Online Pharmaceutical Trades

Cases of counterfeit drugs sold online are a significant problem in the online trading world. From a 2020 report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), antibiotics take the most counterfeited pharmaceutical product.

As health practitioners, it is best to have a keen eye on detecting fake medicine within the online pharmaceutical market. Hence, we provide a few pointers on how to differentiate authentic and forged drugs. 

How to Identify Counterfeit Drugs

Counterfeit Drugs Pricing 

If the price of a pharmaceutical good is significantly lower than the market price, it is more likely to be a counterfeit product. In other words, dishonest traders tend to perform this scam tactic to understand how products with lower costs can easily attract more customers

Hence, the best way to prevent this is to research before purchasing. Moreover, it would be best to compare prices between different suppliers to know the product’s original market price. 



Although it can be hard to distinguish between real and fake medical products at first glance, you can spot the contrast if you pay attention to the package design: 

  • Colour: tone and shade
  • Typography: misspellings, font sizes, and font type
  • Vector: shape and size

Again, research is vital before making any purchase decisions. 

In addition, some counterfeit products might not have a proper seal or packaging. If you find that your newly arrived batch of cough medicines are not within their boxes, there is a possibility the goods are not genuine.  

Drug Registration Number

Drug Registration Number

Authentic medical drugs have a series of registration numbers. In Malaysia, the valid serial number will start with MAL (short form for Malaysia), followed by an 8-digit number. Subsequently, the alphabet at the end of the serial indicates the registration category. 

Here is a list of the categories:

  • A: Controlled medicines
  • X: Over the counter medicines (OTC)
  • T: Natural Products/ Traditional Medicines
  • N: Health Supplements
  • H: Veterinary Products

Therefore, having a registered serial number on the package shows that the drug is Ministry of Health (MOH) approved. 

Anti-Counterfeit Hologram Meditag

Have you noticed the glowing sliver Meditag holographic sticker on the side of pharmaceutical packagings?

This sticker works as a security to ensure product authenticity and MOH approval. For instance, the latest version is the 2012’s third-generation Meditag with a picture of a tiger within a circle. 

Here are the reasons why pirated medical packaging does not include this sticker: 

  • Expensive to manufacture
  • Time-consuming
  • The holographic sticker material is not publicly accessible as it is only available to licensed manufacturers 
Meditag checker app

Besides, you can download a Meditag checker app to examine product authenticity. 

If you are looking for a dependable pharmaceutical supplier that provides over 2,000 products alongside delivery services, Mayflax is your top choice. It has served 25 years in the industry, fulfilling the medication needs of many practices. 

Find out more about Mayflax’s services on our website or contact us for more information.

Risk of High Cholesterol: Tests, Prevention and Treatment

Risk of High Cholesterol: Tests, Prevention and Treatment

What is Cholesterol?

Clogged artery and atherosclerosis disease medical concept with a three-dimensional human artery with blood cells that are blocked by plaque buildup of cholesterol as a symbol of arteriosclerotic vascular diseases.

Cholesterol is actually beneficial for our health. However, if the cholesterol level in our blood is higher than normal, we are exposed to a higher risk of hyperlipidemiahypercholesterolemia, or high blood cholesterol. 

Cholesterol actually helps to support the normal function of cell membraneshormone levels, and others. 

It is an oil-based substance, which means it does not mix with blood, a water-based fluid. Thus, it travels around the body in lipoproteins.

Cholesterol can be found in our daily diets, such as in egg yolks, meat, and cheese.

Interestingly, cholesterol can be either good or bad. 

In fact, excessive cholesterol will build up inside the walls of blood vessels and blocks the blood flow.

This build-up is called plaque, or atherosclerosis.

Many complications may arise due to this, for example:

  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Conorany artery disease

Types of Cholesterol

There are three types of cholesterol, such as:

  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Also known as “bad” cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol may increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Also known as “good” cholesterol, it carries cholesterol back to the liver. Then, the liver flushes it out from the body. Optimum levels of HDL cholesterol can in fact lower the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Also known as “bad” cholesterol because it causes build-up of plaques in arteries.  However, VLDL and LDL are different as VLDL carries triglycerides whereas LDL carries cholesterol.

Test to Measure Cholesterol

What’s even more frightening is that you may not know you have bad cholesterol levels until a sudden heart attack or stroke happens.

So, it is important to check your cholesterol levels at least every 5 years.

The cholesterol screening requires a blood sample.

Hence, before doing a cholesterol test, you will need to fast for about 8 to 12 hours. 

The cholesterol test checks the levels of your total cholesterol. 

It is the total amount of cholesterol in the blood based on your HDL, LDL, and triglycerides.

Levels and Ranges

Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

According to The Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] 2020, the target range for cholesterol levels are as below:

Lipid Profile Normal Range
Total Cholesterol <200 mg/dL
LDL (“bad”) cholesterol <100 mg/dL
HDL (“good”) cholesterol ≥ 60 mg/dL
Triglyceride ≥ 60 mg/dL

What Risk Factors Affect Cholesterol Levels?

Risk factors that may raise your cholesterol level include:

Age:  When we get older, our cholesterol levels may rise. However, young people, such as children and teenagers can also have high cholesterol.

Heredity: Genetic factors can also cause high cholesterol.

Weight: Being overweight or obese also increase your cholesterol level.

Race: Some races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For instance, African Americans have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than Caucasians.

Diet: Saturated fat and trans fat in food, will increase cholesterol levels. Saturated fat can increase your cholesterol count, so take it in moderation. For instance,  red meat, butter, and cheese have a lot of saturated fat.


Avoid tobacco: Smoking may reduce the number of good cholesterol in your body.

Diet: Reduce the intake of trans fats and saturated fat. Eat heart-healthy food, such as fruits, vegetables, fatty fish, and whole grains. On the other hand, limit the intake of red meat, sugary products, and dairy products made with whole milk.

Harvard Health has identified 11 cholesterol-lowering foods that can lower cholesterol levels which includes:

  • oats
  • barley and whole grains
  • beans
  • eggplant and okra
  • nuts
  • vegetable oil like canola and sunflower
  • fruits such as apples, grapes, strawberries, and citrus
  • soy and soy-based foods
  • fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and sardines
  • foods rich in fiber

Exercise regularly: Try to exercise about 30 minutes per day, 5 times a week.

Lose weight: Losing about 10% of your body weight can make a difference in your cholesterol levels. Get advice from your healthcare provider about safe ways to lose weight.

Avoid negative emotions: Learn how to deal with anger, stress, and other negative emotions.

Control blood sugar and blood pressure: Make sure to follow your healthcare provider’s guidelines for blood sugar levels, especially if you have diabetes, to keep your blood pressure healthy.


There are several types of medications to treat high cholesterol.

The type of lipid-lowering drug chosen depends on their level of cholesterol and other risk factors.

Healthcare practitioners usually will advise starting with diet and exercise first, but people with a higher risk of a heart attack may need to take statins or other medications to treat their disease.

  • Statins

Statin medications are one of the most well-known categories of cholesterol drugs. 

Statins work by reducing the amount of cholesterol produced by the liver.

Furthermore, they help to decrease blood cholesterol and thus reduce the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

Several types of statins are available by prescription in Malaysia, such as:

  1. Atorvastatin (Lipitor®).
  2. Fluvastatin (Lescol®).
  3. Lovastatin (Mevacor®).
  4. Pravastatin (Pravachol®).
  5. Rosuvastatin (Crestor®).
  6. Simvastatin (Zocor®).
  • Other lipid-lowering therapy

1. Selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors

2. Niacin is a B vitamin that affects the production of fats in the liver.

3. Bile acid sequestrants are another class of drugs used to treat high cholesterol levels. Drugs, also called resins, are attached to bile acid, which cannot be used for digestion. Consequently, the liver makes more bile by using more cholesterol. Examples of these drugs are Cholestyramine and Colesevelam HCL.

4. Fibrates are also called fibric acid derivatives. They are more effective at reducing triglyceride levels than LDL cholesterol. It also helps to boost the levels of HDL cholesterol. These drugs include Fenofibrate and Gemfibrozil.

5. Omega-3 fatty acid medications derived from fish oils work to lower high triglyceride levels.

Apart from having a healthy lifestyle, some medication helps to reduce the cholesterol level in our bodies. 

At Mayflax, we provide pharmaceutical products including cholesterol medications such as Crestor® and other drug brands. If you purchase medications from us, you can contact us or sign up here for more info.





About the author

Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a Customer Relationship Executive of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing companies.

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STI: Why You Should Get Yourself Screened

STI or Sexually Transmitted Infection is passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Usually, it is through vaginal, oral as well as anal sex.

However, intimate skin-to-skin contact may also spread certain types of STIs, like herpes and HPV.

1 in 15 people has STIs.

In addition, a total of 1.8 million people are infected with this infection and 720,000 new cases were reported in 2019.

Many types of STI exists, for example:

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Syphilis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Signs & Symptoms of STI

There are many common signs & symptoms of STI.

Usually they present with painful or burning urination, unusual discharge from the penis or vagina, or pain during sex.

STIs don't always show symptoms or may only cause mild symptoms. It is possible to have infection and not know it.

STI Screening

Thus, the best way to know whether you have STI is through STI screening.

Screening helps to give you the ease of mind by being confident about your status.

Untreated STIs may cause complications such as brain or spinal cord damages. It could even cause infertility.

For these reasons, early detections can help to prevent the progression of these diseases.

The screenings are usually non-invasive and require only a urine sample or vaginal swab.

Barriers of Screening

Some people may refuse to do the test. This could be caused by the negative stigma surrounding these diseases.

It may even result from the feeling of being ashamed or the general lack of awareness.

Some people might even fear the test procedure itself.

To combat these fears, awareness of the importance of STI screenings must be made.

Who Should be Screened?

Should be Screened?
Should be Tested?
Should screening be done?
Sexually active women ages 25Chlamydia
Hepatitis B and C
At least once or twice a year.
All pregnant womenChlamydia
Hepatitis B
First prenatal visit
In the third trimester

Anyone sharing drug injection equipment
HIVAt least once a year

All in all, it is important for you to screen if you fall into the mentioned category.

It should be noted that most STIs and their symptoms are curable through medications.

However, early detection can significantly prevent the complications of these diseases.

Here at Mayflax, we provide not only medications but also test kits for STI Screening. Get the best price from us! Contact us here to learn more!


  1. Centre of Disease Control (CDC): Which STD test Should I get?
  2. NHS: Sexually Transmitted Infections
  3. Stigma and Lack of Awareness Stop Young People Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Opioids: Painkillers and Possible Addiction

Opioids or sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug used to treat persistent or severe pain. For instance, chronic headaches and chronic pain.

Usually doctors will prescribe this medication if other pain reliever medicines fail to work.

Additionally, those who are seriously injured due to accidents, or any adverse incidents may be prescribed with this drug.

How Opioids Act

The drug acts by binding to specific opioid receptors located in the brain, spinal cord, gut and others. 

When a person feels pain, the pain signals are sent from the body through the spinal cord and lastly to the brain. 

Opioids will block the pain signals from transferring to the brain.

To emphasize, this drug has primary use of relieving intense pain

Potential Side Effects

When you take opioids, you might experience some side effects, such as:

  • Sleepiness
  • Constipation
  • Nausea

In comparison to its beneficial effects, this drug also carries risks and can be highly addictive. 

It happens if you use the drug wrongly. Especially, when it is taken more than prescribed. 

Over time, you will develop tolerance to the usual dose.

Consequently, you will need an even higher dose to relieve the pain. 

This in turn can turn to addiction. To simplify, the drug can make your brain and body believe that it must be taken and necessary for survival.

How To Use Opioids Safely To Manage Pain

Here are some tips to take the drug safely!

  • Talk to your physician or anesthesiologist: Consider another alternative that does not cause addiction such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acupuncture. But if opioids remain the best option, ask how to minimize risk and side effects.
  • Take opioids only as directed: Follow what your physician says, and make sure you read the label of the prescription. Additionally, if you are on other medications, ask your physician whether it is also safe to take opioids together.
  • Watch out for side effects: Ask the physician about the side effects you should be aware of and what can you do to prevent potential problems.

We at Mayflax also provide non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, an alternative to opioids. If you want to find out more about our services, you can click here.