Diarrhoea Awareness: What You Should Know About Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. 

In most cases, diarrhoea usually lasts for a couple of days. 

Diarrhoea occurs when the lining of the intestine is unable to absorb fluid. It can also occur when it actively secretes fluid.

Causes of Diarrhoea

Certain conditions may cause diarrhoea. There are:

  • Viruses:  These includes Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus, and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhoea.
  • Lactose intolerance: Lactose is a form of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Normally, the body will make an enzyme that helps to digest lactose. However, some people have difficulty digesting lactose, resulting in diarrhoea.
  • Medications: Many medications, such as antibiotics also can cause diarrhoea. They disturb the natural balance of bacteria in the intestines thus causing this condition.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diarrhoea includes:

  • Loose, watery stools
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Blood in the stool
  • Bloating
  • Nausea

Although diarrhoea is a common condition, the awareness of its management is still low.

This debilitating condition can cause dehydration which may be life-threatening if left untreated.

It is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weak immune systems. 

In fact, CDC reports 1 in 9 child death is due to diarrhoea.

So, it is really important to increase hydration when experiencing this condition.

If you have signs of serious dehydration, do seek medical help.


There are 3 types of drugs used to treat diarrhoea:

  • Antimotility Agents: Diphenoxylate + Atropine (Lomotil) , Loperamide
  • Adsorbents: Aluminium Hydroxide, Methylcellulose
  • Agents That Modify Fluid and Electrolyte Transport: Bismuth Subsalicylate
However, it is advisable to get doctor’s or pharmacist’s consultation before taking these medications.


Besides conducting a physical exam and reviewing medications, the doctor might order tests to determine what’s causing diarrhoea.

These tests include:

  • Blood test: A complete blood count test can help determine what’s causing diarrhoea.
  • Stool test:  A doctor might recommend a stool test to determine whether a bacterium or parasite is causing diarrhoea.


Some types of diarrhoea can very easily be passed on to other people. 

Transmission can occur via dirty hands, contaminated food as well as pets.

Likewise, do not prepare food for people if you are suffering from diarrhoea since you may be transmitting the disease through the food you prepare.

So, it is crucial to wash hands thoroughly with warm water and soap after going to the toilet and also before food preparation. 

Moreover, hand sanitisers are useful when you are not near a sink to wash your hand.

On the other hand, children mustn’t go to school or childcare when they are having diarrhoea.

Though diarrhoea is a common condition experienced by most people at least two to three times a year, the awareness of its management is still low.

Hence, it is crucial to increase awareness by practising the precautions and teaching our children to do the same. 

We at Mayflax also provides drug for diarrhoea such as Lomotil and Bismol. Feel free to contact us here to get our fast and effective services.


How to Control Asthma

What is Asthma?

Asthma happens when your airways narrow, swell or produce excessive mucus. 

This disease makes breathing difficult and may cause a wheezing sound when breathing. 

Ultimately, it can cause shortness of breath.

Although this disease cannot be cured, its symptoms can be managed.

Asthma often changes over time, so you must cooperate with your doctor to trace your signs and symptoms.

Asthma Trigger Factors

Not all the things that can cause asthma are known. 

However, we do know that genetic, environmental, and occupational factors have been linked to developing this disease.

An asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “triggers.” 

Triggers can be very different from person to person.

When you can’t avoid your triggers, be aware of an asthma attack.

Some of the most common triggers include:

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Dust mites
  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Cockroach allergen
  • Pets fur
  • Mould
  • Weather

Know your triggers and learn how to avoid them.

Sign and Symptoms of Asthma

Symptoms of this disease vary from person to person. 

You may have infrequent attacks, have symptoms only at certain times such as when exercising, or have symptoms all the time.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Wheezing when exhaling, which is a common sign of asthma in children
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu.

Seek Emergency Treatment

Severe attacks can be life-threatening.

Consult with your doctor to determine what to do when your signs and symptoms worsen and if you need emergency treatment. 

Signs of an asthma emergency include:

  • Rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing
  • No improvement even after using a quick-relief inhaler
  • Shortness of breath when you are doing minimal physical activity

Prevention and Management

Take your medicine as prescribed by your doctor to avoid having serious conditions. 

Most importantly, try to stay away from things that can trigger an attack.

Different asthma conditions will result in different medical treatments.

Some medicine can be taken through inhalation and others orally.

Asthma medicines come in two types. 

They are quick-relief and long-term control. 

Quick-relief medicines control the symptoms whereas long-term control medicine help to reduce the number of attacks. 

However, long-term control medications do not provide quick relief when having an attack.

Asthma medicines may have some side effects, but most side effects are mild and usually go away quickly. You may ask your doctor for clarification about the side effects of your medicines.

Remember, asthma can be controlled. 

Make an action plan based on your doctor’s guidance. 

Take your long-term control medicine together with you even when you don’t have symptoms.

Mayflax has more than 25 years of experience as a pharmaceutical company in Malaysia. We provide various drugs for various diseases. Feel free to contact us here to procure our services.


STI: Why You Should Get Yourself Screened

STI or Sexually Transmitted Infection is passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Usually, it is through vaginal, oral as well as anal sex.

However, intimate skin-to-skin contact may also spread certain types of STIs, like herpes and HPV.

1 in 15 people has STIs.

In addition, a total of 1.8 million people are infected with this infection and 720,000 new cases were reported in 2019.

Many types of STI exists, for example:

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Syphilis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C

Signs & Symptoms of STI

There are many common signs & symptoms of STI.

Usually they present with painful or burning urination, unusual discharge from the penis or vagina, or pain during sex.

STIs don't always show symptoms or may only cause mild symptoms. It is possible to have infection and not know it.

STI Screening

Thus, the best way to know whether you have STI is through STI screening.

Screening helps to give you the ease of mind by being confident about your status.

Untreated STIs may cause complications such as brain or spinal cord damages. It could even cause infertility.

For these reasons, early detections can help to prevent the progression of these diseases.

The screenings are usually non-invasive and require only a urine sample or vaginal swab.

Barriers of Screening

Some people may refuse to do the test. This could be caused by the negative stigma surrounding these diseases.

It may even result from the feeling of being ashamed or the general lack of awareness.

Some people might even fear the test procedure itself.

To combat these fears, awareness of the importance of STI screenings must be made.

Who Should be Screened?

Should be Screened?
Should be Tested?
Should screening be done?
Sexually active women ages 25Chlamydia
Hepatitis B and C
At least once or twice a year.
All pregnant womenChlamydia
Hepatitis B
First prenatal visit
In the third trimester
Anyone sharing drug injection equipmentHIVAt least once a year

All in all, it is important for you to screen if you fall into the mentioned category.

It should be noted that most STIs and their symptoms are curable through medications.

However, early detection can significantly prevent the complications of these diseases.

Here at Mayflax, we provide not only medications but also test kits for STI Screening. Get the best price from us! Contact us here to learn more!


  1. Centre of Disease Control (CDC): Which STD test Should I get?
  2. NHS: Sexually Transmitted Infections
  3. Stigma and Lack of Awareness Stop Young People Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

Opioids: Painkillers and Possible Addiction

Opioids or sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug used to treat persistent or severe pain. For instance, chronic headaches and chronic pain.

Usually doctors will prescribe this medication if other pain reliever medicines fail to work.

Additionally, those who are seriously injured due to accidents, or any adverse incidents may be prescribed with this drug.

How Opioids Act

The drug acts by binding to specific opioid receptors located in the brain, spinal cord, gut and others. 

When a person feels pain, the pain signals are sent from the body through the spinal cord and lastly to the brain. 

Opioids will block the pain signals from transferring to the brain.

To emphasize, this drug has primary use of relieving intense pain

Potential Side Effects

When you take opioids, you might experience some side effects, such as:

  • Sleepiness
  • Constipation
  • Nausea

In comparison to its beneficial effects, this drug also carries risks and can be highly addictive. 

It happens if you use the drug wrongly. Especially, when it is taken more than prescribed. 

Over time, you will develop tolerance to the usual dose.

Consequently, you will need an even higher dose to relieve the pain. 

This in turn can turn to addiction. To simplify, the drug can make your brain and body believe that it must be taken and necessary for survival.

How To Use Opioids Safely To Manage Pain

Here are some tips to take the drug safely!

  • Talk to your physician or anesthesiologist: Consider another alternative that does not cause addiction such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acupuncture. But if opioids remain the best option, ask how to minimize risk and side effects.
  • Take opioids only as directed: Follow what your physician says, and make sure you read the label of the prescription. Additionally, if you are on other medications, ask your physician whether it is also safe to take opioids together.
  • Watch out for side effects: Ask the physician about the side effects you should be aware of and what can you do to prevent potential problems.

We at Mayflax also provide non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, an alternative to opioids. If you want to find out more about our services, you can click here.


Sleeping: Should You Aim for Better Quantity or Quality?

Sleeping allows your body and mind to recharge, leaving you refreshed and alert when you wake up. We always hear people saying that getting enough sleep is important for your body, but how much sleep is enough sleep? And should you go for quantity or quality?

How much sleep do you need?

Here’s how much kids and adults need, on average according to the CDC:

An average adult needs 7-9 hours of sleep. Getting enough sleep within the recommended hour lowers the mortality risk. When you don’t get enough sleep, your mortality risk increases.  

To put it in another way, the shorter you sleep, the shorter your life.

But what’s even more amazing, the amount of sleep and mortality risk is not directly proportional. This means that getting more sleep above a certain threshold would not necessarily lower your mortality risk.

In fact, once you get past the 9 hours benchmark, your mortality risk rises.

Scientists have come up with 2 different theories relating to this.

The first is, in those studies, the individuals suffering from significant disease and illness try to sleep longer. Hence, it might be that actually, the disease triggers a response in those individuals to sleep more.

The second possible explanation is the poor quality of sleep. The mortality risk is also associated with sleep quality and is independent of sleep quantity. Thus, the lower your quality of sleep, the higher your mortality risk.

Moreover, people who have poor sleep quality often will try to compensate with longer sleep. Thus, it might be that having a poor quality of sleep will cause you to sleep longer. This is then associated with a higher risk of mortality. 

Improve your sleep quality and quantity

To improve your sleep quality and quantity, try practising the following tips:

  1. Work out daily
  2. Eat more fiber
  3. Avoid caffeine at least 7 hours before bed
  4. Create relaxing bedtime routine
  5. Create a comfortable sleep environment
  6. Listen to white and pink noise

By doing these steps, it can help you wind down in the evening and prepare for sleep.

In this modernity where people are pushing themselves to work long hours and sometimes neglect sleep, it might be a great idea if we start prioritizing our sleep so that one day we will be able to enjoy the fruits of all the hard labour.

For more articles, visit Mayflax.


  1. https://www.sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/why-do-we-need-sleep
  2. https://casper.com/blog/how-to-increase-deep-sleep/
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/how_much_sleep.html

Leptospirosis in Malaysia: “The Great Mimicker”

Leptospirosis contributes to over 1.03 million cases annually with 58,900 reported deaths globally. As a matter of fact, Southeast Asia has the second highest cases of Leptospirosis.

This figure may be understated due to a lack of updated and reliable data on leptospirosis infection in many countries.

What is Leptospirosis?

Leptospirosis is an animal-borne disease. It is caused by a bacterium called Leptospira interrogans, a highly motile and aerobic spirochete.

Typically, wild and domestic animals such as rodents, cattle and wild animals may carry the bacterium in their kidneys.

Cause of Prevalence in Malaysia

The first ever human case of severe Leptospirosis in Malaysia was in 1927.

Since Malaysia is located near the equator, Malaysia harbors a suitable environment for the progression of this bacterium.

Moreover, factors such as occupation, animal contact, adventure travel, and lack of sanitation contributes to the spread Leptospirosis.

How do you get Leptosprosis?

Leptospirosis may be spread through the urine of infected animals, which can get into water or soil. Leptospira interrogans can even survive there for weeks to months.

Contact with urine from infected animals can infect humans. This includes indirect contact, such as from soil, food and, also water infected with the urine.

The bacterium enters into the body through the breaks of skin, such as scratches as well as open wounds.

Additionally, it can also get into a person through the nose, mouth or genitals.

Signs & Symptoms

Leptospirosis is also known as “The Great Mimicker” because patients infected with this disease may mimic symptoms of other unrelated infections, such as hepatitis as well as dengue.

Symptoms includes:

  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle aches
  • Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes)
  • Red eyes
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash


According to National Antibiotic Guideline Malaysia (2019), leptospirosis can be treated with oral antibiotics such as doxycycline and penicillin.

It is advisable to give an early treatment of antibiotics in the course of the disease. Patients with severe symptoms may require intravenous antibiotics.

Pain management medications such as Paracetamol or Ibuprofen can treat fever and pain.

Ways to prevent and control

In Malaysia, the main cause of leptospirosis are environmental, occupational and, also behavioural factors. Thus, several actions may help in combating this infection.

1. Health education

Organizing public awareness campaign can help in creating awareness. Moreover, this approach also helps to deliver important messages as well as motivate them to take preventive actions.

2. Risk assessment of possible contaminated water sources/bodies

Authority should assess possibly contaminated areas. Additionally, posting warning signage can help to notify public of the hazard of the contaminated area.

3.  Public behavioural prevention

Persons with occupational and recreational exposure to potentially contaminated water or soil should also wear protective clothing. Additionally, protecting open wounds with a waterproof dressing and immediately washing the exposed area with clean water can help to reduce the chances of infection from leptospirosis.

For more articles, visit Mayflax here.



Improving Adherence Through Counselling

Improving patients’ adherence has been a challenge for healthcare workers. Nonadherence is a complex and tough issue. Consequently, it can cause poor clinical outcomes and contribute to poor quality of life.

As such, interventions must be done to educate as well as to motivate patients.

There are many reasons for non-adherence. Some of them include, patients not believing that the medication is necessary, accidentally take more or less than prescribed and even completely forget to take them altogether.

To improve this, healthcare professionals must utilize communication and behavioral strategies such as counselling.

It should be noted that counselling should be personalized to each patient. This is because each patient has different causes and reasons for non-adherence.

Although counselling can assess a patient’s adherence, there are still a few limitations. A patient may lie about taking his or her medications on time or may even blatantly refuse to cooperate.

As such, instead of using traditional counselling methods, try practising counselling that empathizes with the patient’s intrinsic motivation. The approach to counselling should be easily understood and supportive of the patient’s needs. Listed below are a few pieces of advice towards improving patient’s adherence rates.

1. Avoid using medical jargon

Instead of saying “Take this to treat your hypertension”, try saying “Let’s try this for your high blood pressure.”

2. Avoid judgement-centered question

Instead of asking “You’ve been taking all of your pills in your therapy regimen, right?”, say “How many pills in your therapy regimen would you say you missed this week?”

3. Assist patient in setting medication-taking goals

You can do this by asking “Which strategy seems like something you could try to increase our statin taking?”

4. Be clear about the benefit of the medicine

For example, you can say “If you take your diabetes medicines and control your blood sugar, you may not need to have your eyeglass prescription changed as often.”

To summarize, improving medication adherence improves patient’s confidence to manage their illness.

Indeed, counselling together with other interventions help to improve patients’ medication knowledge and also adherence.

Evidently, asking the right questions can also help make a real difference.

For more articles like this, visit Mayflax.


  1. Costa E, Giardini A, Savin M, et al. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2015;9:1303–1314.
  2. https://www.aafp.org/fpm/2016/0900/p52.html#fpm20160900p52-b1
  3. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/patient-counseling-approaches-to-enhance-medication-adherence

Anti-microbial Resistance: A Global Threat

Anti-microbial resistance has long been a serious global public threat. It happens when bacteria, viruses and fungi no longer respond to medicines due to mutations.

This makes it harder to treat the disease thus causing severe illness and death.

The discovery of antibiotics by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928, has helped save millions of lives from infectious diseases.

However, as people build antibiotic resistance, it is estimated that the annual death toll may reach 10 million by 2050.

This will also negatively affect the economy as treating antibiotic resistance comes with a high cost.

What’s more worrying is that, since the 1980s, there has been no major new class of antimicrobial. This will severely restrict future therapeutic options.

How It Happens

This crisis happens due to several factors. The first is the overuse of these medications.

Studies have shown that in 30% to 50% of the cases that the usage of antibiotics are prescribed incorrectly whether it is due to :

  • treatment of indication
  • choice of agent
  • duration of antibiotic therapy

Another reason is the improper usage of antibiotics as anti-microbial resistance may occur when patients do not take their medications as prescribed.

This includes stopping treatment as soon as they feel a little better or using leftover antibiotics for another illness. This can lead to antibiotic resistance.

In other words, those that don’t follow the prescribed course of the antibiotics would build anti-microbial resistance.

Another factor is that antibiotic developments by large pharmaceutical companies are not a profitable investment.

This is because antibiotics are used for a short period and are not as profitable as drugs treating chronic conditions.

This means there will be fewer innovations in the antibiotic classes of medications.

Several actions can prevent anti-microbial resistance. Such as:

1. Public awareness and Education

Organizing public awareness program can help in increasing awareness. Another method is to include specific antibiotic labelling as well as counselling regarding the proper usage of antibiotics.

2. Appropriate Use of Anti-microbials

Optimize the use of anti-microbial medicines. These medications should only be prescribed when indicated.

3. Infection Prevention and Control

Reduce the incidence of infection through effective sanitation, hygiene and infection prevention measures.

These efforts aim to ultimately reduce unnecessary and inappropriate consumption of anti-microbial medicines. All in all, efforts from all parties can help in preserving the efficacy of these precious drugs for the present and future generations.

For more articles like this, visit Mayflax.


  1. Malaysian Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (MyAP-AMR) 2017-2021
  2. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/combating-antibiotic-resistance
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/q-a.html
  4. Ventola C. L. (2015). The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats. P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management40(4), 277–283

Generic and original drug: What is the difference?

Generic or original?

What is generic drug and what is original drug? An original brand drug or innovator drug is simply the first drug created containing a specific active ingredient to receive approval for use.

In addition, its efficacy, safety and quality have been fully established.

As opposed to original drug, generic drug is mainly a drug with the same active ingredient to its innovator drug and also have the same efficacy, safety and quality.

Common myths about generic drug

  • Generic drug is not as safe as its original drug
  • It is not as effective as innovator
  • It takes longer time to act in the body

A drug must comply to three major factors, Efficacy, Safety and Quality.

There is no truth in the myths surrounding generic drugs.

This is because firstly, generic drugs use the same active ingredients as the innovator drugs.

Though it may appear differently in terms of colour or appearance, it does not affect the major factors; Efficacy, Safety and Quality.

Secondly, the Drug Control Authority (DCA) imposes a stringent evaluation procedure that generic pharmaceutical manufacturers have to follow.

These products have to undergo bioequivalent (BE) studies to ensure its therapeutic effect is interchangeable to its innovator drug.

Not only does this rule apply to generic drugs produced from local pharmaceutical manufacturer companies, but even to generic drugs imported internationally.

Why do I feel original drug works better than generic drugs?

As mentioned before, generic drugs have different appearance than its innovator drugs. This in turn may cause a certain perception about the quality and efficacy of the drug, either positive or negative.

Oddly enough, perception plays a role in the way the drug works in our body.

So, it may be simply because of wrong perception of this drug.

Researches analyzing reports from scientific databases MEDLINE and EMBASE found that even though 60% of the studies reported no difference between the drugs, people taking generic medicine have higher risk of hospital visits.

However, it is important to note that the studies only show a correlation, not the effect of generic drug.

Generally, people with lower socioeconomic status tend to have worse healthcare outcomes.

They are also more likely to choose generic drugs due to its lower cost.

Additionally, the study’s researchers also state that a firm conclusion cannot be drawn due to insufficient evidence.

drug cost

But why does generic drugs cost less than original brands?

Before understanding this issue, we must first understand that the process of developing new drug is not only expensive, it is also lengthy.

The processes involve synthesis, chemical identification and purification of the chemical, development into a pharmaceutical dosage form and lastly, testing and trials.

All of this may take up to 15 years with total expenditure estimated to be up to US$1bil (RM3.6bil).

The manufacturer is granted a patent for a few years, typically 5 to 15 years.

During this period, they are given the exclusivity to manufacture and market the drug.

Understandably, the cost of the innovator drug during this monopoly period tend to be high.

Soon as the patent period ends, manufacturers of generic medicines will then manufacture the generic form of the drug.

By skipping the whole extensive process mentioned, generic manufacturers are able to produce the drug chemically with shorter duration and significantly less costly.

Moreover, there will be multiple manufacturers for generic drugs. Thus, creating competition in the market and resulting in lower price.

In relation to above mentioned, Mayflax is an established pharmaceutical wholesaler providing a wide variety of medications, whether original or generic. Click here to learn more!




Better Adherence, Better Clinical Outcome

World Health Organization (WHO) describes medication adherence as “the degree to which the person’s behaviour corresponds with the agreed recommendations from a health care provider”.

To conclude, it refers to the willingness of patient to take their medications as prescribed and whether they want to continue to take the medications as prescribed.

Although Malaysia is ranked among the top in the world for its healthcare system and Malaysians are provided with great and accessible healthcare, only a small number of patients achieve optimal control for this disease.

Evidently, a majority of people in Malaysia do not adhere to their long term medications.

  • 4.7 million patients have adherence issue for high cholesterol medications
  • 2.1 million patients have adherence issue for diabetic medications
  • 3 million patients have adherence issue for hypertension medications

As a matter of fact, a study by Hassali et al. concluded a high return rate for unused medication in government hospital.

The study calculated the cost of returned unused medication was about RM42.35/patient. In other words, the estimation cost across Malaysia may total up to millions Ringgit per year.

Relationship between adherence and long-term disease

Patients are advised to adhere to their medications. Evidently, this may help to reduce the progression of their disease and achieve optimal control.

According to WHO, increasing adherence may have greater effect on health than improvements in specific medical therapy.

On the contrary, low adherence may result in faster progression of disease.

Therefore, this may contribute to high healthcare costs, poor treatment outcome and poor quality of life.

So, why don’t people take their medications as directed?

There are several reasons why patients don’t take their medications such as :

  • Forgetfulness
  • Complex regimen
  • Lack of understanding of the disease
  • Patient do not experience symptoms of the disease
  • Medication cost

Improving adherence

Many interventions have been carried out, aiming to improve medication adherence. These can be classified into different categories, for example:

  1. Technical intervention

    Special packaging such as pill box
    Dosage simplification

  2. Behavioural intervention

    Reminders such as reminder by SMS or alarm

  3. Educational

    Educating patient about the disease

  4. Social support

    Buddy system

  5. Structural intervention

    Disease management program

Hence, there are multiple strategies that can be applied to prevent this issue.

Medication adherence is not the sole responsibility of patients.

In conclusion, physicians and patient must work hand-in-hand to identify the key factor of poor compliance to combat this issue.

If you are a general practitioner starting your own practice, we at Mayflax offer to help you to save on buying pharmaceutical products. Click here to learn more.


American Heart Association. Medication adherence–taking your meds as directed.

Aziz, H., Hatah, E., Makmor-Bakry, M. et al. Qualitative exploration of the modifiable factors for medication adherence among subsidised and self-paying patients in Malaysia.

Hassali MA, Supian A, Ibrahim MI, Al-Qazaz HK, Al-Haddad M, Salee F, et al. The characteristics of drug wastage at the hospital, Tuanku Jaafar Seremban, Malaysia: a descriptive study.

World Health Organization. Adherence to long-term therapies: Evidence for action [Updated 2003]