Diarrhoea Awareness: What You Should Know About Diarrhoea

Diarrhoea is the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. 

In most cases, diarrhoea usually lasts for a couple of days. 

Diarrhoea occurs when the lining of the intestine is unable to absorb fluid. It can also occur when it actively secretes fluid.

Causes of Diarrhoea

Certain conditions may cause diarrhoea. There are:

  • Viruses:  These includes Norwalk virus, cytomegalovirus, and viral hepatitis. Rotavirus is a common cause of acute childhood diarrhoea.
  • Lactose intolerance: Lactose is a form of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Normally, the body will make an enzyme that helps to digest lactose. However, some people have difficulty digesting lactose, resulting in diarrhoea.
  • Medications: Many medications, such as antibiotics also can cause diarrhoea. They disturb the natural balance of bacteria in the intestines thus causing this condition.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diarrhoea includes:

  • Loose, watery stools
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Blood in the stool
  • Bloating
  • Nausea

Although diarrhoea is a common condition, the awareness of its management is still low.

This debilitating condition can cause dehydration which may be life-threatening if left untreated.

It is particularly dangerous in children, older adults and those with weak immune systems. 

In fact, CDC reports 1 in 9 child death is due to diarrhoea.

So, it is really important to increase hydration when experiencing this condition.

If you have signs of serious dehydration, do seek medical help.

Treatment

There are 3 types of drugs used to treat diarrhoea:

  • Antimotility Agents: Diphenoxylate + Atropine (Lomotil) , Loperamide
  • Adsorbents: Aluminium Hydroxide, Methylcellulose
  • Agents That Modify Fluid and Electrolyte Transport: Bismuth Subsalicylate
However, it is advisable to get doctor’s or pharmacist’s consultation before taking these medications.
 

Diagnosis

Besides conducting a physical exam and reviewing medications, the doctor might order tests to determine what’s causing diarrhoea.

These tests include:

  • Blood test: A complete blood count test can help determine what’s causing diarrhoea.
  • Stool test:  A doctor might recommend a stool test to determine whether a bacterium or parasite is causing diarrhoea.

Prevention

Some types of diarrhoea can very easily be passed on to other people. 

Transmission can occur via dirty hands, contaminated food as well as pets.

Likewise, do not prepare food for people if you are suffering from diarrhoea since you may be transmitting the disease through the food you prepare.

So, it is crucial to wash hands thoroughly with warm water and soap after going to the toilet and also before food preparation. 

Moreover, hand sanitisers are useful when you are not near a sink to wash your hand.

On the other hand, children mustn’t go to school or childcare when they are having diarrhoea.

Though diarrhoea is a common condition experienced by most people at least two to three times a year, the awareness of its management is still low.

Hence, it is crucial to increase awareness by practising the precautions and teaching our children to do the same. 

We at Mayflax also provides drug for diarrhoea such as Lomotil and Bismol. Feel free to contact us here to get our fast and effective services.

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How to Control Asthma

What is Asthma?

Asthma happens when your airways narrow, swell or produce excessive mucus. 

This disease makes breathing difficult and may cause a wheezing sound when breathing. 

Ultimately, it can cause shortness of breath.

Although this disease cannot be cured, its symptoms can be managed.

Asthma often changes over time, so you must cooperate with your doctor to trace your signs and symptoms.

Asthma Trigger Factors

Not all the things that can cause asthma are known. 

However, we do know that genetic, environmental, and occupational factors have been linked to developing this disease.

An asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “triggers.” 

Triggers can be very different from person to person.

When you can’t avoid your triggers, be aware of an asthma attack.

Some of the most common triggers include:

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Dust mites
  • Outdoor air pollution
  • Cockroach allergen
  • Pets fur
  • Mould
  • Weather

Know your triggers and learn how to avoid them.

Sign and Symptoms of Asthma

Symptoms of this disease vary from person to person. 

You may have infrequent attacks, have symptoms only at certain times such as when exercising, or have symptoms all the time.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Wheezing when exhaling, which is a common sign of asthma in children
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
  • Coughing or wheezing attacks are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu.

Seek Emergency Treatment

Severe attacks can be life-threatening.

Consult with your doctor to determine what to do when your signs and symptoms worsen and if you need emergency treatment. 

Signs of an asthma emergency include:

  • Rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing
  • No improvement even after using a quick-relief inhaler
  • Shortness of breath when you are doing minimal physical activity

Prevention and Management

Take your medicine as prescribed by your doctor to avoid having serious conditions. 

Most importantly, try to stay away from things that can trigger an attack.

Different asthma conditions will result in different medical treatments.

Some medicine can be taken through inhalation and others orally.

Asthma medicines come in two types. 

They are quick-relief and long-term control. 

Quick-relief medicines control the symptoms whereas long-term control medicine help to reduce the number of attacks. 

However, long-term control medications do not provide quick relief when having an attack.

Asthma medicines may have some side effects, but most side effects are mild and usually go away quickly. You may ask your doctor for clarification about the side effects of your medicines.

Remember, asthma can be controlled. 

Make an action plan based on your doctor’s guidance. 

Take your long-term control medicine together with you even when you don’t have symptoms.

Mayflax has more than 25 years of experience as a pharmaceutical company in Malaysia. We provide various drugs for various diseases. Feel free to contact us here to procure our services.

REFERENCES

Opioids: Painkillers and Possible Addiction

Opioids or sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug used to treat persistent or severe pain. For instance, chronic headaches and chronic pain.

Usually doctors will prescribe this medication if other pain reliever medicines fail to work.

Additionally, those who are seriously injured due to accidents, or any adverse incidents may be prescribed with this drug.

How Opioids Act

The drug acts by binding to specific opioid receptors located in the brain, spinal cord, gut and others. 

When a person feels pain, the pain signals are sent from the body through the spinal cord and lastly to the brain. 

Opioids will block the pain signals from transferring to the brain.

To emphasize, this drug has primary use of relieving intense pain

Potential Side Effects

When you take opioids, you might experience some side effects, such as:

  • Sleepiness
  • Constipation
  • Nausea

In comparison to its beneficial effects, this drug also carries risks and can be highly addictive. 

It happens if you use the drug wrongly. Especially, when it is taken more than prescribed. 

Over time, you will develop tolerance to the usual dose.

Consequently, you will need an even higher dose to relieve the pain. 

This in turn can turn to addiction. To simplify, the drug can make your brain and body believe that it must be taken and necessary for survival.

How To Use Opioids Safely To Manage Pain

Here are some tips to take the drug safely!

  • Talk to your physician or anesthesiologist: Consider another alternative that does not cause addiction such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acupuncture. But if opioids remain the best option, ask how to minimize risk and side effects.
  • Take opioids only as directed: Follow what your physician says, and make sure you read the label of the prescription. Additionally, if you are on other medications, ask your physician whether it is also safe to take opioids together.
  • Watch out for side effects: Ask the physician about the side effects you should be aware of and what can you do to prevent potential problems.

We at Mayflax also provide non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, an alternative to opioids. If you want to find out more about our services, you can click here.

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Can Depression Be Cured?

Depression is a medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. 

Depression is different from being sad. So, can depression be cured?

Although depression can be cured with time, it depends on the type and severity of the depression. 

The first step towards getting over this disease is to have a better understanding of its causes.

Symptoms

There are many types of depression. Major depressive disorder(MDD) is the most common form of depression. Symptoms include:

  • Loss of interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Feeling fatigued
  • Changes in weight or appetite
  • Sleeping issues
  • Trouble in making decisions, thinking, and concentrating

Usually, symptoms persist for at least two weeks before a person is diagnosed with MDD.

Medications

Antidepressants can alleviate the symptoms of depression. They help you feel better and prevent relapses. 

It is important to note that antidepressants do not cure depression but merely alleviate the symptoms. 

They work by generating more serotonin in the brain. 

Moreover, it takes at least 4 to 6 weeks to work. So, you have to take the medications regularly.

Lifestyle Changes

Besides taking medications, certain lifestyle changes can also be made. 

One way is to avoid alcohol. Alcohol is a temporary fix people use to escape from reality and it does not treat the underlying problem.

Another way is to remain physically active and maintain a balanced diet. Regular exercise increases endorphins which will help to relieve depression.

Getting enough sleep may help your body to recover itself both mentally and physically. 

Other than managing your lifestyle, getting consultation and treatment from the right healthcare professionals can also help.

Importance of Treatment

Taking medications while maintaining a healthy lifestyle help to combat depression. 

It is important to take medications as a short-term relief measure while working on longer-term lifestyle changes.

Here at Mayflax, we provide drugs for almost every ailment. We also provide fast and efficient delivery. You can click here to know more about our service.

REFERENCES

How Lifestyle Is Linked With Heart Disease

Did you know that heart disease is the leading cause of death in Malaysia for both men and women? 

Those who have the conditions listed below should pay attention to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Health Conditions Which Increase Risk of Heart Disease

  • High Blood Pressure

Uncontrolled blood pressure can affect the heart and lead to heart disease.

  • Diabetes

Diabetes is a condition when blood glucose is too high. 

  • High cholesterol level

High cholesterol level increases the risk of plaque formation,  forcing your heart to pump harder.

  • Obesity

Obesity means you have excess fat in your body. Excess weight usually worsens health conditions.

One of the ways to live a healthy lifestyle is to have a healthy diet. Having a healthy diet would prevent obesity, high blood pressure and uncontrolled diabetes.

Hence, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle that would reduce the risk of heart disease.

You can also maintain a healthy lifestyle by maintaining the following behaviours.

Behaviour That Increases Heart Disease

Physical inactivity may cause you to have high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity.

Excess consumption of alcohol also may increase the risk of getting heart disease and increase blood pressure. Besides, alcohol also contains a fatty substance called triglyceride which may increase the risk for heart disease.

Is Heart Disease Hereditary?

Genetic factors may contribute to high blood pressure and heart disease. Heredity following an unhealthy lifestyle would compound the risk of getting heart disease.

The risk of getting heart disease also increases as you age.

If you fall in the high-risk category of getting heart disease, you should focus on maintaining a healthy lifestyle and talk to your doctor.

If you need to procure heart medications, try Mayflax. Mayflax has over 25 years of experience in supplying pharmaceutical products. You can sign up here or find out more about us here.

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Osteoarthritis: Signs & Symptoms, Complications and Prevention

Osteoarthritis affects millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage, cushioning the ends of the bones, wears down over time.

Although this disease can damage any joint, the most commonly affected joints are the knees, hands, hips, and spine.

Signs & Symptoms

Signs & symptoms of osteoarthritis may develop slowly and worsens over time. Examples include :

  • Pain: During movements, the affected joint might get hurt.
  • Swelling: Inflammation around the joint causes this condition.
  • Loss of flexibility: The joint is unable to move.
  • Crepitus: Grating, crackling as well as popping sounds sensation occurs due to presence of air under the skin or joint. Roughening of the normally smooth surfaces inside the joint consequently, cause this sensation.

If you have any of the symptoms above, make an appointment to see a doctor.

Risk Factors

As you get older, you are at a higher risk of osteoarthritis. Women, however, are more likely to get it.

Moreover, being obese adds stress to the joint and thus, may increase the risk this disease. 

This disease can also be hereditary.

Complications

Over time, osteoarthritis may worsen. Joint pain and stiffness might become severe enough to make daily tasks difficult.  Hence, this may cause some people to be unable to perform daily tasks.

Can It be Prevented?

Osteoarthritis can’t be fully prevented. However, you can try reducing the risk by reducing stress on the joints. For example:

  • Maintaining a healthy body weight

Extra weight can cause stress on the joints. Additionally, extra fat will also cause changes in the cartilage.

  • Control your blood sugar

High blood sugar level increases the risk for osteoarthritis.

  • Be active every day

Exercise not only can prevent joint problems by keeping joints from getting stiff, but it can also keep muscles strong.

In a nutshell, prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis are possible. Here at Mayflax, we provide various types of drugs for various diseases. Contact us here to get to know us better

REFERENCES

Antibiotics: Basic Information About The Miracle Drug

Antibiotics are powerful drugs, used to fight infections. In fact, if they are properly used, they can even save lives. 

Normally, our immune system can kill bacteria infecting our body. But in certain cases, the number of harmful bacteria is excessive. So, our immune system is not able to fight off the infection. 

Thus, this is where antibiotics play their role.

They work either by destroying or preventing bacteria from reproducing. 

How Antibiotics Work

Antibiotics work either by bactericidal or bacteriostatic

Bactericidal means that it kills bacteria by interfering with the formation of the bacterial cell wall or the cell contents whereas, bacteriostatic means it works by stopping the bacteria from multiplying.

Classification of Antibiotics

There are a few classes of antibiotics, each works in different ways. Here are the main classes and the examples:

ClassExamples
PenicillinsAmoxicillin
CephalosporinsCephalexin
MacrolidesErythromycin, Azithromycin
FluoroquinolonesCiprofloxacin, Levofloxacin,
SulfonamidesCotrimoxazole
TetracyclinesDoxycycline
AminoglycosidesGentamicin

Antibiotics can be taken either by mouth or injection and they usually work a few hours after it is taken. 

Some antibiotics have to be taken before food and some have to be taken after food. So, you should follow the direction given by your doctor or pharmacist. 

Usually, the duration of treatment is around 5 to 14 days. However, it depends on the type of infection you are treating. 

Although you might feel better before finishing the treatment course, you should not stop taking the medication before the course has finished. Doing so might cause resistance to future treatments.

Nevertheless, your doctor will decide the duration of treatment and what’s the best antibiotic for you.

Side Effects

There are many common side effects of this drug, such as:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomachache
  • In women, vaginal yeast infections

There are also uncommon side effects, such as:

  • Abnormal blood clotting
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Deafness

So, if you experience these side effects, do not discontinue treatment. Instead, get your doctors advice immediately.

Antibiotic Resistance

50 years ago, Staphylococcus Aureus was very sensitive towards penicillin.

Over time, the bacteria mutate, producing an enzyme that can break down penicillin and consequently, the drug became ineffective. In fact, this phenomenon is called antibiotic resistance. 

To clarify, it happens when bacteria mutate, developing the ability to fight against drugs used to kill them.

Consequently, certain infections cannot be treated effectively. Mutation, however, can be caused by overuse or incorrect use of this drug.

In conclusion, this miracle drug is important to treat infectious diseases. Since resistance can develop, take this medication only with the doctor’s supervision.

Here at Mayflax provide various types of drugs. Find out more about our services.

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278#what-are-antibiotics
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html
  3. https://www.healthline.com/health/how-do-antibiotics-work#uses

What You Should Know About Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium TuberculosisAlthough TB is contagious, it is not easily contracted.

This disease normally attack the lungs, but it may also affect different part of your body such as kidneys, spine or brain.

An interesting fact about TB is, adults are more prone to this disease than children. 

This is because adults on average have more contact with other adults.

Signs & Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Signs & symptoms of Tuberculosis includes:

  • Coughing for more than 3 weeks
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Night sweats

Additionally, people with a weakened immune system are at risk of getting tuberculosis disease. These are typically people with these conditions:

  • HIV infection
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Low body weight
  • Organ transplants
  • Substance use

Treatment of Tuberculosis

Like many other diseases, TB is treatable by using a combination of drugs.

The treatment period may take six to twelve months. 

The choice of drugs, as well as duration of treatment, is dependent on the severity of TB.

However, it is important that you comply with your medications. Skipping doses or medications may cause the bacteria to mutate, causing the disease to be deadlier and harder to treat. 

Prevention against Tuberculosis

Last but not least, prevention is always better than cure. 

The BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccination may help against TB. It is a live vaccine from weakened Mycobacterium Bovis.

Above all, a healthy immune system is the best prevention from TB.

It is also important to help stop the spread of TB. With this in mind, if you are infected with TB, you should stay home, ventilate the room and always wear a mask.

Mayflax is a provider for various medications. You can get various drugs at a reasonable price from us for your clinics or hospitals. Contact us here to know more!

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Common Questions About Epilepsy

Epilepsy, a common neurological disease, is a chronic disorder that causes repetitive seizures.

A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.

There are two types of seizures; generalized seizures and focal seizures. 

Generalized seizures affect the whole brain while focal seizures affect just one part of the brain. 

Symptoms

Epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in the brain. Sign and symptoms include: 

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell or gaze
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Psychic symptoms such as fear and anxiety.

Risk Factors

The risk of having epilepsy may be increased by certain factors, namely:

  • Family history: A person can develop a seizure disorder when any family member has epilepsy.
  • Age: Evidently, the disease is more common in children and older adults.
  • Head injuries.
  • Stroke and other vascular diseases: This can lead to brain damage and triggers epilepsy.

Complications

This disease, like many other diseases, comes with several complications. 

Seizures at certain times may be dangerous to patients and to others.

For instance, the likelihood of falling during a seizure attack is high. Falling during a seizure may injure the head.

Epileptic patients are also more likely to drown while bathing or swimming.

Moreover, epilepsy during pregnancy may pose danger to both the mother and the fetus.

To add, a certain anti-epileptic drug may increase the risk of birth defects. Discuss with your doctor before planning to get pregnant.

On the other hand, people with epilepsy tend to get psychological problems, such as depression, and anxiety. This is because of the difficulties dealing with the condition itself and medication side effects.

Treatment

Several types of treatments exist to treat this disease. 

Most commonly patients are treated with oral medications, called anti-epileptic drugs. 

However, if oral medications fail to give desirable effect, another type of treatment is also available, such as:

  • Vagus nerve stimulator: This device is placed under the skin on the chest during surgery. It electrically stimulates the nerve that runs through your neck and prevents seizures.
  • Ketogenic diet: This is a high fat with low carbohydrate diet.
  • Brain surgery: Remove the area of the brain that causes seizures.

Mayflax has 25 years of experience and provides over 2000 pharmaceutical products at low prices too! 

If you want to use our service as a supplier, feel free to contact us here

REFERENCES

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Heart Failure: Cause, Signs & Symptoms and Treatment

What is Heart Failure

The disease “heart failure” does not mean that your heart has stopped. 

In fact, heart failure means that the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s need for blood and oxygen.

This consequently cause blood backflow and fluids backup. In turn, it can cause fluid build-up in the lungs, causing shortness of breath.

Usually, it is caused by other medical conditions that damage the heart. For instance, coronary heart disease, heart inflammation, high blood pressure, or irregular heartbeat.

Signs & Symptoms

Heart disease can get worse or may start suddenly. For instance, sign and symptoms may include:

  1. Shortness of breath when you lie down
  2. Fatigue and weakness
  3. Persistent cough
  4. Lack of appetite and nausea
  5. Reduced ability to exercise

Complication

Among the complications of heart failure is arrhythmia. A condition where the heart beats irregularly.

Besides, this disease also can cause liver damage. This is due to the accumulation of fluid in the liver, causing high pressure in the liver. 

This in turn will lead to scarring, causing difficulty for the liver to function properly.

How to Diagnose Heart Failure

The most effective way to diagnose this disease is by an echocardiogram (ECG)

This procedure uses sound waves to create detailed pictures of your heart. 

So, it helps to evaluate the damage to your heart and determine the underlying causes of the patient’s condition. 

As opposed to using sound waves, blood test may also help to diagnose this disease.

The test check for a chemical N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) if the diagnosis isn’t certain after other tests. 

The chemical measures the concentration of a hormone produced by the left ventricle which grades the severity of heart failure.

Prevention and Treatment

Ultimately, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy body weight are the keys to prevent heart failure.

Besides, eating plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains also can help to prevent this chronic condition.

In addition, smoking cessation and moderate alcohol intake may reduce the risk of getting this disease. 

In terms of treatment, patients with this disease usually needs a lifelong management. 

Treatment may help to improve quality of life and life  expectancy. 

There are some medications you can take with doctor’s prescription to treat this disease, such as:

  • Beta-blockers: It slows and reduces blood pressure.
  • Diuretics: Helps to remove excess fluids.
  • Cardiac glycosides: Increase the strength of heart muscle contractions and also tend to slow heartbeat.

In some cases, doctors recommend surgery to treat the underlying problem that led to heart failure. Some of them are:

  • Coronary bypass surgery: This procedure is recommended if there are severely blocked arteries.
  • Heart valve repair/replacement: This procedure replaces or repairs a faulty heart valve. The original valve can be modified to eliminate backward blood flow.

Though medications may help manage this disease, there is still no cure. Damage to your heart muscle may improve but it will not return to normal.

To treat the disease properly, take the medication prescribed by the doctor.

In conclusion, living a healthy lifestyle is recommended to prevent heart failure. 

To get the supply of the drug, we at Mayflax provides pharmaceutical products to clinics and hospitals. You can click here or sign up here to know more about us.

REFERENCES

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is a staff officer at Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.