Epilepsy is a common serious brain or neurological disorder.

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that causes repetitive seizures. A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.

There are two types of seizures which is generalized seizures and focal seizures. Generalized seizures affect the whole brain while focal seizures affect just one part of the brain.

Did you know that more men have epilepsy than women? This is because estrogen lowers thresholds for seizures whereas progesterone increases it.


Epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in the brain. Sign and symptoms may include: 

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell or gaze
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Psychic symptoms such as fear and anxiety.


  • Genetic influence: epilepsy can be hereditary.
  • Head trauma: a car accident that causes traumatic injury can cause epilepsy.
  • Prenatal injury: Babies are sensitive to brain damage before birth. The causes of these conditions are infection in the mother, poor nutrition, or lack of oxygen.
  • Brain conditions: damage to the brain such as strokes also can cause epilepsy.

Risk Factors

Certain factors may increase the risk of epilepsy:

  • Age: epilepsy is more common in children and older adults.
  • Family history: A person can develop a seizure disorder when any family member has epilepsy.
  • Head injuries.
  • Stroke and other vascular diseases: this can lead to brain damage and triggers epilepsy.


  • Falling: Falling during a seizure may injure the head.
  • Drowning: If you have epilepsy, you’re more likely to drown while bathing or swimming. This is because you may have a seizure while in the water.
  • Emotional health issues: People with epilepsy can get psychological problems, such as depression, and anxiety. This is because of the difficulties dealing with the condition itself and medication side effects.

How to Diagnose Epilepsy

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. Firstly, electrodes are attached to your scalp with a paste. Then, you may be asked to perform a task. After that, the electrodes will record the electrical activity of your brain.  If there is a seizure, there will be changes in the normal brain wave pattern.


  • Anti-epileptic drugs: These medications can reduce the number of seizures. Some people can eliminate seizures. 
  • Vagus nerve stimulator: This device is placed under the skin on the chest during surgery. It electrically stimulates the nerve that runs through your neck and prevents seizures.
  • Ketogenic diet: This is a high fat with low carbohydrate diet.
  • Brain surgery: Remove the area of the brain that causes seizures.

Mayflax provides drugs such as Gabapentin and Carbamazepine for epilepsy diseases. Mayflax has 25 years of experience and provides over 2000 pharmaceutical products at low prices too! If you want to use our service as a supplier, feel free to contact us here


  1. https://www.healthline.com/health/epilepsy
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16581409/
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Heart Failure

What is Heart Failure?

The term heart failure can sometimes be frightening to people. The definition of heart failure is a chronic, continuous condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s need for blood and oxygen. As a result, body functions are disturbed when there is not enough blood flow. The term “heart failure” does not mean that your heart has stopped. However, heart failure is a serious condition that needs fast treatment.

Usually, heart failure is caused by other medical condition that damages the heart. For instance, this includes coronary heart disease, heart inflammation, high blood pressure, or an irregular heartbeat.


Heart failure can get worse or may start suddenly. For instance, heart failure sign and symptoms may include:

  1. Shortness of breath when you lie down
  2. Fatigue and weakness
  3. Persistent cough
  4. Lack of appetite and nausea
  5. Reduced ability to exercise

Types of Heart Failure

Left-Sided Heart Failure

Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath.

Right-Sided Heart Failure

Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs, and feet causing swelling.

Systolic Heart Failure

The left ventricle can’t contract vigorously, indicating a pump problem.

Diastolic Heart Failure

The left ventricle can’t relax/fill fully, indicating a filling problem.


Risk Factors

Anyone can get heart failure. However, certain factors may contribute to a higher risk of developing this heart failure condition. As an example, people of African descent are at the highest risk of having heart failure compared to other races and men also have a higher incidence than women.

People with a certain disease that damages the heart are also at a higher risk to develop heart failure. These diseases include:

  • Anemia
  • Emphysema
  • Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
  • High blood pressure: your heart works harder than it has to when your blood pressure is high.
  • Certain behaviors such as smoking, eating foods high in fat and cholesterol, living a sedentary lifestyle, and being overweight can also increase your risk of developing heart failure.


Arrhythmias is one of the potential complications of heart failure. Besides, heart failure also can cause liver damage. This will leads to the accumulation of fluid that puts too much pressure on the liver. This fluid backup will lead to scarring, which causes difficulty for the liver to function properly.

How to Diagnose Heart Failure

The most effective way to diagnose heart failure is by an echocardiogram. This procedure uses sound waves to create detailed pictures of your heart. This can help to evaluate the damage to your heart and determine the underlying causes of the patient’s condition. In addition, the echocardiogram also measures the ejection fraction of the heart which important to see how well your heart is pumping and used to help classify heart failure.

Blood tests also can be used to detect heart failure. Take a blood sample to look for signs of disease that can affect the heart. The test check for a chemical N-terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) if the diagnosis isn’t certain after other tests. Certainly, the chemical measure the concentration of a hormone produced by the left ventricle which grade the severity of the heart failure.

Prevention and Treatment of Heart Failure

On the first place, regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy body weight are the key to prevent heart failure. Besides, eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains also can help to prevent heart failure. In addition, we also can prevent heart failure by stop smoking and limit moderate alcohol intake.                      

To treat heart failure, it need a lifelong management since it is a chronic disease. Treatment may help the patients to live longer and reduce their chance of dying suddenly.

These are some medications you can take to treat heart failure:

  • Beta-blockers: it slows and reduces blood pressure. Examples are carvedilol, metoprolol, and bisoprolol.
  • Diuretics: cause the patients to urinate more frequently.
  • Digoxin: increase the strength of heart muscle contractions and also tend to slow heartbeat.

In some cases, doctors recommend surgery to treat the underlying problem that led to heart failure. Some of them are:

  • Coronary bypass surgery: This procedure is recommended if there are severely blocked arteries that contribute to heart failure.
  • Heart valve repair/replacement: This procedure is recommended to replace or repair the valve if a faulty heart valve causes heart failure. The original valve can be modified to eliminate backward blood flow.

There is no cure for heart failure. Damage to your heart muscle may improve but it will not go away.

In a conclusion, heart failure usually occurs with other diseases that damage the heart. Living a healthy lifestyle is recommended to prevent heart failure. To treat the disease properly, take the medication prescribed by the doctor.

To get the supply of the drug, you can go with Mayflax which provides pharmaceutical products to a clinic and hospital. Heart failure medications are available here at Mayflax. You can click here or sign up here to know more about us.


Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

Gout vs Pseudogout :Risk Factors,Causes, and Symptoms


Gout is a common form of arthritis. It is also a painful condition that usually involving the joints. It is caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is formed when the body breaks down purines. The purines can be found in the body and certain foods. When symptoms get worse, it is known as flares. When there are no symptoms, it is known as remissions.

Risk Factors

There are many risk factors for gout.Gout generally develops in men between age 30 to 45 and women age 55 to 70.

Increased Risk for Developing Gout:

  1. Obesity.
  2. High Blood Pressure.
  3. Injury or recent surgery.
  4. Fasting or overeating.
  5. Consuming an excessive amount of alcohol regularly.
  6. Diet high in meat, shellfish, and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup.
  7. Taking medications that can increase blood levels of uric acid.


Gout occurs when there is an excess of uric acid in the body. The body makes uric acid when it breaks down purines. Purines are found in the body and the foods we eat. Usually, uric acid crystals can build up in joints, fluids, and tissues within the body when there is an excess of uric acid in the body. Hyperuricemia does not always cause gout. In addition, hyperuricemia without gout symptoms does not need to be treated. The sharp, needle-like crystals cause gout. 


  1. Intense joint pain: can occur at any joint but usually affects the big toe.
  2. Inflammation and redness: joint is usually swollen, warm, and red.
  3. Limited movement: not able to move joint normally.
  4. Lingering discomfort: last from few days to a few weeks.

Symptoms develop quite rapidly. It can last for three to ten days. Usually, the symptoms and signs affect a single joint. Gout attacks are very painful. It can happen quite suddenly, often overnight. The pain is typically severe. So, it shows the severity of inflammation in the joint. The medical term for excessive fluid in a joint is a “joint effusion”.


  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – reduce swelling and pain. It is used as first-line treatment.
  2. Colchicine – people who cannot tolerate NSAIDs usually take  colchicine.
  3. Steroids (prednisone) – used in people who cannot take NSAIDs or colchicine. Prednisone is linked with an increased risk of a recurrent gout attack.


Pseudogout also is a form of arthritis that causes sudden joint pain and swelling. It is caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals (CPPD). 

The sudden attacks of joint pain, swelling, and warmth can occur when you have pseudogout. It can last for days to weeks. It can affect the ankles, feet, shoulders, elbows, wrists, or hands but it mostly affects the knee.

Risk Factors

Besides older age, several other factors also increase the risk for developing pseudogout :

  • Joint trauma due to injury or surgery.
  • Genetics: some people tend to develop pseudogout and more likely to have symptoms at an earlier age.
  • Excess iron: people with a genetic disorder that causes the body to store excess iron.
  • Other disorders: some disorders that affect metabolism or endocrine glands are likely to develop pseudogout.


Pseudogout occurs when calcium pyrophosphate crystals form in the synovial fluid in the joints. Crystals can also deposit in the cartilage and can cause damage. The formation of crystal in the joint fluid results in swollen joints and acute pain. Older people have higher possibilities of getting pseudogout compared to younger people. In addition, the genetic condition can cause pseudogout because it always occurs in families.

In addition, other factors may include :

  • Low activity of the thyroid gland.
  • Parathyroid glands create too much parathyroid hormone.
  • Excess iron in the blood.
  • High calcium levels in the blood.
  • Lack of magnesium.


Pseudogout most often affects the knees. In addition, it also affects the ankles, wrists, and elbows.

General symptoms may include:

  1. Bouts of joint pain
  2. Swelling of the affected joint
  3. Fluid build up around the joint
  4. Chronic inflammation


Until now, no treatment can completely remove or prevent the formation of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals. Therefore, treatment is generally focused on reducing pain and swelling.

  • Joint injection: insert a needle into the affected joint and take off the fluid. So, the crystals, pressure, and pain will be relieved. Injection of a steroid into the joint can decrease the amount of inflammation present.
  • Oral medications such as NSAIDs, prednisone, and colchicine can decrease inflammation and pain.
  • Joint immobilization: avoid lifting heavy objects if it involve the legs.


Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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