Reducing risks of osteoporosis fractures in Crohn’s disease with impact and resistance training

Cr. John Arano

Source from MIMS.com

A recent study shows that combined impact and resistance training exercises helps raise bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle function, which benefits patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who has a high risk in developing osteoporosis and related fractures.

Researchers selected adults with stable CD (n=47, mean age=49.3 years) and were assigned to undergo an exercise intervention (n=23) or receive usual care alone (n=24) for 6 months. Usual care plus a combined impact and resistance training programme were given to the exercise group while patients underwent three 60-minutes sessions per week, with a gradual tapering of supervision to self-management.

Most of the patients had quiescent disease and none of the patients smoked. 216 months median time since the CD diagnosis and according to baseline BMD measurements, 12 patients had evidence of osteopaenia or osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and 20 at the left hip. The most common medications used for CD were immunosuppressants and biologics; none were on corticosteroids.

The bone mineral density (BMD) values were better in the exercise vs the control group at 6 months, with the difference significant at lumbar spine, but not at femoral neck nor at greater trochanter.

Even though there were three exercise-related adverse events (for instance light-headedness and nausea) the intervention yielded improvements in all muscle function outcomes and fatigue severity.

The findings highlight the intervention as a suitable model of exercise for reducing the future risk of osteoporotic fractures and physical disability in this high‐risk population, according to researchers.

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TB antibiotics in reaching targets

Cr. Simone van der Koelen

Source from Sciencedaily.com

Researchers have built up another technique that empowers them to envision how well antibiotics against tuberculosis (TB) reach at their pathogenic targets inside human hosts. The discoveries, published in the journal Science, boost understanding of how antibiotics work and could help direct the development of new antibiotics, which are truly necessary in the fight against drug-resistance.

TB treatment

TB stays as one of the world’s deadliest infectious diseases, with over a million TB-related deaths worldwide every year.

At the point when an individual is infected with Mtb (mycobacteria), their immune system attempts to clear the microorganism by calling upon specialised immune cells called as macrophages that perceive and engulf Mtb. However, the bacteria frequently discover ways to survive and duplicate, causing illness. Patients require at least four antibiotics for at six months to defeat the disease.

It was previously unknown whether antibiotics enter all the compartments of the macrophage where the Mtb hide and duplicate.

The method pioneered in this study, which consolidates three kinds of imaging (correlated light, electron and nano-scale ion microscopy), permits researchers to picture the circulation of TB drugs in Mtb-infected human macrophages at high resolution, for the first time.

A test-case TB drug

Utilizing bedaquiline as an test-case, the group contaminated human macrophages with Mtb, and following up after two days, they treated them with the medication. Their imaging results revealed that bedaquiline accumulated in various compartments of the cell, most eminently, inside lipid droplets.

The bacteria can interact with and consume these lipid droplets. Be that as it may, the group (Crick-led team) didn’t know whether bedaquiline would be moved to the bacteria, or whether the lipid droplets were retaining the antibiotic and keeping it from arriving at the bacteria. Including a chemical that kept lipid droplets from forming significantly decreased the measure of bedaquiline in Mtb, proposing that the lipid drops are responsible for moving antibiotic to the bacteria.

“Now that we can see exactly where antibiotics go once they enter macrophages, we can build up a much clearer picture of how they reach their targets, and harness these observations to design more effective treatments in the future, not only for TB but for other infectious diseases too” says Max Gutierrez, Crick group leader and senior author of the paper.

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Women with recurrent pregnancy loss could reduce their stress with emotion-focused strategies

Cr. Matteo Di iorio

Source from MIMS.com

According to the data presented at ESHRE 2020, perceived stress in women who had recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) could be reduced by meditation and mindfulness interventions.

Karen Kirchheiner from Hdidovre Hospital in Denmark, stated that studies have shown perceived stress and moderate-to-severe depression are more prevalent in women with RPL than other women trying to conceive.

“A 7-week meditation and mindfulness programme significantly reduced perceived stress [vs] a standard supportive care programme for women with RPL,” she said.

The researchers in the study randomized 76 women, 1:1 to receive supportive care alone or with a 7-week meditation and mindfulness programme facilitated by an authorized instructor. Daily guided audio of meditation for 10-20 minutes were also instructed for the women in the intervention arm while women in the control arm were instructed against meditation; 63 women completed the study.

Mean perceived stress significantly dropped from baseline in both the intervention and the control arms at 7 weeks with intervention outweighed the control protocol in terms of perceived stress reduction for between-group comparison.

The between-group difference was not significant as the perceived stress levels remained low in both intervention and control arms at 12 months vs baseline.

Women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in personal stress from baseline, which were based on COMPI-FPSS scores at week 7. No significant differences were seen in the other two domains despite the reduced scores.

Consistent numerical reductions were seen across all COMPI-FPSS domains with the intervention protocol at 12 months, 9.2 to 8.7 points, and 7.9 to 7.6 points with only the social domain score reduction was statistically significant.

At week 7, depression was reported at baseline, dropping to none for two women in the intervention and at 12 months, only one had depression. However, these reductions did not equate to statistical significance.

Kirchheiner stated that there are no any significant decrease in depression in all three timelines and underlined that the study was not powered to detect differences in Major Depression Index (MDI).

“[Nevertheless, our studies suggest that] guided self-administered meditations could be a useful tool in the care for women experiencing RPL …. We now have a documented tool to reduce perceived stress. The question now is how to implement this in our clinical practice,” she concluded.

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Facing the pandemic with a mental health : Students are struggling

Cr. Sam Balye

Source from WebMD.com

College life could be both stressful and demanding and from that, anxiety, depression and inactive lifestyles are actually common among students. Now with the pandemic of COVID-19 happening worldwide, a new study might have found that the mental-health issues could be escalated and turn for the worst.

Researchers at Dartmouth College determined that the coronavirus pandemic had an immediate impact on the mental health of this particular undergraduate group of 200 students, using a mix of smartphone data and online surveys.

The study involved students who were participating in a research program tracking mental health at the New Hampshire university with Spikes of depression and anxiety were reported at the beginning of the pandemic in early March, just as the school pushed students to leave campus and begin remote learning all by their selves.

The study found out that the students’ overall anxiety and depression levels remained consistently high than in previous years, even if their self-reported anxiety and depression lessened slightly later on in the semester.

Jeremy Huckins, a lecturer at Dartmouth stated that there is a large-scale shift in mental health and behaviour compared to the observed baseline established for the group over previous years.

In addition, the students reported around spring break period in mid-March that their day-to-day lives were dramatically more sedentary than pervious terms.

Huckins suspected that spring break 2020 was stressful and confining for the students in the study and it might be responsible for a large number of college students across the country even though it is usually a period of decreased stress and increased physical activity.

A smartphone app developed at Dartmouth was used by the researchers to calculate sedentary time. It collected information such as number of phone unlocks, phone usage duration and sleep duration from the student volunteers.

Through the app, data on depression and anxiety were also collected using weekly, self-reported questionnaires. The decrease in activity among these students may have been related to lockdown orders implemented at the time.

Huckins also said that when social distancing was recommended by local governments, students were more sedentary and visited fewer locations on any given day. “The impact of COVID-19 extends beyond the virus and its direct impacts. An unresolved question is if mental health and physical activity will continue to degrade over time, or if we will see a recovery, and how long that recovery will take”.

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Study shows that having red meat before exercise does not offer any additional benefits

Cr. Victoria Shes

Source from MIMS.com

A new study has shown that people who are consuming lean red meat in line with current recommendations does not improve muscle mass, strength, nor cognitive functions of healthy community-dwelling older adults undertaking resistance-based exercise training 3 days/week compared to those consuming carbohydrates.

154 random adults aged ≥65 years was picked by the researchers as they participated in a multicomponent 3-day/week resistance-based exercise programme to either a lean red meat group, the exercise plus lean red meat or a control group receiving carbohydrates in the form of one-half cup or rice or pasta or 1 medium potato, the exercise plus carbohydrate control, on training days.

For the primary outcomes in total body lean mass, leg LM, thigh muscle cross-sectional area, leg and back muscle strength, and executive function;  there were no significant differences between-groups in exercise-induced improvements.

There were also no significant differences in improvements for the secondary outcomes of global cognition function, fat mass, physical function measures, or systolic blood pressure.

In terms of arm Lm, gait speed, muscle density, and appendicular LM in the per-protocol analysis, the improvements were greater for the Ex + meat group than the C + Ex group.

At the same time, net improvements in working memory learning after 12 weeks and 24 weeks were greater in the C + Ex group than the Ex + Meat group.

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Diabetic ketoacidosis in children equals to hypertension

Cr. Rene Bernal

Source from MIMS.com

Study has found that for children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hypertension is a common phenomenon.

Researchers gathered 1,258 patients who had sufficient haemodynamic data for the present analysis while using data from the Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Out of these, 12.2 percent had documented hypertension at presentation.

In under 2 hours, hypertension were resolved quickly in 36 children and for 118 episodes, hypertension lasted for 2 hours. During DKA treatment, the blood pressure was normal at baseline in 196 patients but progressed to hypertension during DKA treatment. Developed at any time during DKA, the resulting overall rate of hypertension was at 27.8 percent.

The median duration of  hypertension was 4.0 hours and at presentation, correlated with more severe acidosis and stage 2 or 3 acute kidney injury. On the contrary, at baseline, lower glucose levels or glucose-corrected sodium concentrations were associated with hypertension at presentation.

Lower scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale and more severe acidosis correlated with the development of hypertension at any point during DKA. Severe acidosis, stage 2 acute kidney injury, and younger patient age are also directly correlated with hypertension severity.

The researchers stated that a central mechanism may be involved in causing abnormal haemodynamic regulation with the development of hypertension during DKA treatment and the association of hypertension with altered mental status.

They also added that it is necessary to better understand relationships of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities during DKA is necessary and how these relate to life-threatening cerebral injuries in some children.

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Erectile health in men gets affected by the functionality of their lungs

Cr. Tim Marshall

Source from MIMS.com

Based on recent study, erectile dysfunction (ED) appears to correlate with an impaired forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) out of other classic risk factors.

Free of a history of diabetes, cardiovascular or kidney diseases, 331 men were under supervision and assessment using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) resulted into the main outcome of ED. Through mini-spirometry, FEV1 was measured under the guidance of a study nurse.

For normal predicted FEV1 values, sixty-six percent of the participants had it while 23 percent and 11 percent had mild and moderate impairments. Five patients had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while four had a history of asthma with fifty-nine participants had moderate-to-severe ED.

A link between the impaired predicted FEV1 and moderate-to-severe ED were uncovered by researchers.

The risk of ED was increased by almost fivefold for men with FEV1, which is between 1.0-2.0 L/s. For those with predicted FEV1, the corresponding risk was over four times as high.

The researchers stated that the biological background can only be hypothesized since it is the first study to report the association between decreased pulmonary function and ED in apparently healthy men. Be that as it may, the findings underscore the importance of monitoring for sexual and erectile health in men with weak lung function.

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