Nanotechnology as a drug delivery in Cancer Treatment

Picture of nanotechnology cancer

Nanotechnology as a drug delivery in Cancer Treatment

What is Cancer ?

     Cancer is a leading cause of death and remains a difficult disease to treat. It was estimated that there would be 18.1 million new cancer cases and 9.6 million cancer-related deaths by 2018 (Global cancer statistics 2018). Besides, cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation that spreads to other parts of the organs to cause death. Moreover, cancers can be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign means tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other organs meanwhile malignant can grow rapidly, invade and destroy nearby healthy tissues, and spread to whole parts of the body.  Therefore, current technology as nanotechnology are being used to treat cancer.

Picture of cancer

How Does Nanotechnology as a Drug Delivery?

A nanotechnology is a great tool in the fight against cancer. It is safer and more precise. This application has led to several promising results in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Not only that, it includes drug delivery, gene therapy, detection and diagnosis, drug carriage, biomarker mapping, targeted therapy, and molecular imaging.

The nanotechnology cancer treatments work to destroy cancer tumors with minimal damage to healthy tissue and organs, as well as the detection and elimination of cancer cells before they form tumors.

Picture of nanotechnology cancer

However, nanotechnology diagnoses and treats disease at a very tiny scale. Frankly, the particles are 100 to 10,000 times smaller than human cells. Because of their small size, they can locate and kill cancer more precisely than current cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy. However, many drugs are insoluble, so it difficult to administer. These compounds can be “solubilize” by combining them with organic or lipid nanoparticles, which keep them in circulation for longer periods, or by forming them into crystalline Nano suspensions stabilized by surfactants.

Nanotechnology treatments, for instance, the development of nanoscale drug delivery, can ensure precise cancerous tissue targeting with low side effects. Thus, it can easily cross the cell barrier due to its biological nature.

The tiny size of nanoparticles allows them to deliver medicines into which areas of the part of the human body that be hard to reach. For instance, the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier prevents foreign substances from entering into the brain and also prevents some medications from being absorbed. As a result of their small size, nanoparticles can pass through this barrier, making them a useful treatment for brain cancer.

Nanotechnology Tools Used in Cancer Diagnosis

Nanotechnology can validate cancer imaging at the tissue, cell, and molecular levels, according to current research. Its use in the development of nanomaterials, which include the following:

  1. Near Infrared (NIR) Quantum Dots
  2. Nanoshells
  3. Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles

Is Nanotechnology Now in Use?

Nanotechnology has been used for more than a decade by doctors to treat cancer. For instance,  abraxane and doxil, aid in the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs.

Abraxane is a nanoparticle made of the protein albumin and the chemotherapy drug docetaxel. It inhibits the division of cancer cells. Furthermore, this medication to treat breast cancer and pancreatic cancer that already spread to other parts of the body and non-small-cell lung cancer.

Doxil known as doxorubicin will wrap in a liposome, which is a fatty sac. It disrupts cancer genes, preventing cancer cells from dividing. This drug use to treat cancers of the ovary, multiple myeloma, and Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Does Nanotechnology for Cancer Have Side Effects?

Nanotechnology more precisely targets cancer cells while sparing healthy tissues. However, nanotechnology drugs may have fewer side effects than chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the case of nanotechnology-based treatments, abraxane and doxil do cause side effects which are weight loss, nausea, and diarrhea.

References:

Nanotechnology, cancer, cancerous, cancer cells,  drug delivery, treatment, death, cell proliferation, organs, benign, malignant, healthy tissues, body, safer, precise, diagnosis, tumors, cancer cells, tiny scale, human cells, kill, inhibits, chemotherapy, insoluble, solubilized, lipid nanoparticle, crystalline nano suspensions, stabilized, surfactants, nanoscale, cell barrier, blood-brain barrier, biological nature, medicines, drugs, foreign substances, Nanoshells, (NIR) Quantum Dots, Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles, chemotherapy, genes, side effects.

                ABOUT THE AUTHOR  

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Raihan Ridzuan

Raihan Ridzuan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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How to Set up a Medical Clinic in Malaysia

Choosing Pharmaceutical Products for Clinics and Hospitals

Choosing Pharmaceutical Products for Clinics and Hospitals

To ensure your patients receive proper medical care, you must stock up your healthcare facility with the right type of pharmaceutical products in sufficient quantities.

However, this process can be complicated and incur high costs when not carried out systematically. Here are the factors you should consider when choosing products for your clinic or hospital.

1. Legal requirements

Legal requirements

To obtain drug supplies from manufacturers and wholesalers for your facility, you first need to have an Annual Practicing Certificate (APC) as stated in the Poisons Act 1952. You will also need to renew your APC annually.

2. Choosing the Right Pharmaceutical Products Supplier

Choosing the Right Pharmaceutical Products Supplier

Did you know that the cost of pharmaceutical products is the second-highest after staff costs in any given country’s healthcare system?

Besides that, the public has voiced their disapproval regarding private facilities known to overcharge for products. This has led to the public purchasing directly from pharmacies and companies sourcing from pharmacies to reduce staff medical benefit costs.

Therefore, researching and finding a supplier committed to providing reasonably-priced and high-quality products is critical. This way, you will be able to offer affordable services to your patients. Make sure to consider the supplier’s prices, shipping policy, dependability, return policy, drug quality and reputation.

3. Types and Quantities of Pharmaceutical Products

Types and Quantities of Pharmaceutical Products

The next question is: what products should you procure, and in what quantities? Equipping your facility with the right products and amount to meet your patients’ needs and avoid wastage is crucial.

Firstly, your facility should have sufficient quantities of essential drugs (basic medicines that meet the population’s healthcare needs) at all times. These products are listed on Malaysia’s National Essential Medicine List (NEML).

The NEML currently consists of 359 medicines. Ideally, a hospital should have 150-200 medication on hand, while smaller facilities need around 40-50 medications.

You will also need to carry out quantification to estimate the demand for specific products during a certain period. To quantify accurately, you will need information from the essential medicines list, consumption data, epidemiological data, prescription patterns, stock levels, stock-out frequencies, and length of procurement cycles.

4. Storing Pharmaceutical Products

Storing Pharmaceutical Products

Before purchasing pharmaceutical products, you need to ensure your facility has the right storage conditions for every product.

Besides, you will have to maintain proper segregation, temperature, lighting, humidity, sanitation, and ventilation levels. Additionally, you must keep dangerous drugs and psychotropic substances under lock and key with an alarm system.

These measures are vital to avoid contamination, disfiguration of labels, theft and loss, and pest infestation and maintain the product quality or potency.

Lastly, you should monitor and take note of each product’s expiry date regularly. Moreover, implementing a FEFO (First To Expire First Out) policy can help avoid wastage.

If you’re looking to procure pharmaceutical products for your facility, Mayflax can help you. Mayflax is a one-stop pharmaceutical wholesaler that provides over 2,000 quality pharmaceutical products to healthcare professionals at low prices. Find out more about them here.

No adverse CV outcomes and excess risks of death from Febuxostat

Cr. Halacious

Source from MIMS.com

According to the results of a meta-analysis, the use of febuxostat does not appear to come with an increased hazard of mortality or adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, for the treatment of patients with gout and hyperuricemia.

Data from 15 randomized controlled trials were collected by researchers and contributed to a total of 16,070 participants. The proportion of patients with hypertension varied between 27.7 percent and 100.0 percent, while those with diabetes ranged from 6.9 percent to 100.0 percent.

A median follow-up of 6.4 months were used across the trials, and the use of febuxostat vs control (allopurinol or placebo) did not result in a significant increase in the risk of CV mortality and all-cause mortality.

The same was true for adverse CV outcomes, as follows: major adverse CV events (risk difference [RD] 1.40 percent), myocardial infarction (RD, -0.06 percent), stroke (RD, 0.10 percent), or new-onset hypertension (RD, 1.58 percent).

Among patients with existing CV disease, the findings were consistent and the test (Egger’s regression test) did not detect significant publication bias.

The evidence were limited by the presence of low to moderate certainty, the researchers said. Recommendations of evaluating CV events and mortality as an outcome were stated by the researchers, as well as defining major adverse CV events, and comparing the outcomes among different doses of febuxostat over a longer follow-up duration in future trials.

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Setting up your own clinic

Cr. Martha Dominguez de Gouveia

Source from bas.com.my

Malaysians nowadays are gradually shifting towards private healthcare system due to better facilities and care that are being offered compared to Public healthcare system. Not to forget how Public healthcare system are usually dealing with overcrowding issues.

Hence it is very appropriate for you to open your own private clinic at this time, which could bring a great deal of profit.

Ministry of Health regulates and monitors the private healthcare system while the Licensing Unit of Ministry is responsible for issuing licenses to private hospitals, maternity homes, clinics and nursing homes.

Steps to set up a Clinic in Malaysia

1. Location

A proper research is needed before a location is picked and lots of factors have to be considered like is it going to be in a residential or a commercial area, the population density, the financial status of the diaspora and most importantly presence of other clinics.  Having a spacious parking area available for your customers is always advantageous while catering to patients.

2. Obtain the Premises

Having your own building is great but if you’re thinking on renting then have an advance 3 months amount of rent ready and prepare a proper rental agreement after a  discussion with the building owner. 

3. Registration Process

Setting up a private clinic in Malaysia is not easy as they should register under the Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act 1998 and Regulations 2006 with the respective state. The application may be accepted by the state office after taking a small amount of processing fee with all requirements fulfilled and after being issued a Letter of No Objection, the interior renovation and furnishing of the clinic can be started.

4. Proper Floor Plan Layout

Various physical criteria needed to be approved under Act 586 and it is necessary to work closely with the contractor that has been hired to draw out the layout you have in mind for your clinic which may include measurements for consultation room, treatment room, waiting area, pantry, pharmacy, dispensary, etc.

5. Annual Practising Certificate

Every medical practitioner needs to be registered with the MMC (Malaysian Medical Council) as per the Medical Act 1971 and must necessarily apply for Annual Practising Certificate (APC) every year. When you have kick-started your own private clinic, it is highly recommended to amend your APC to include your new clinic address. This can be quite easily done at the Ministry of Health, Putrajaya.

6. License for Advertisement

Starting with advertisements is advisable as it would attract future customers to your clinic but before that, a license need to be obtained for clinic advertisement issued your local council – like DBKL (Kuala Lumpur City Hall) which takes two months. You may start your advertisement campaign when it is approved and beat your competitors.

7. Procurement of Drugs

Open an account from various manufacturing companies so that you could procure the medicines and drugs needed for your clinic. Once the account is active (by using APC (Annual Practicing Certificate), you can place orders for drug supply.

8. Staff

Ensure staff’s EPFF and SOSCO procedures are completed at the nearby KWSP/EPF and PERKESO offices and to hire well-qualified staffs and helpers that would make your clinic thrive.

9. X-ray Machine Installation 

Remember to apply for a license if you ever planning to install an X-ray machine at your clinic as it is entirely different than the ones you currently have.

10. Companies Commission of Malaysia

The final mandatory requirement to set up your own clinic is to get registered with the Companies Commission of Malaysia, under the Registration of Business Act 1956.

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