Gout vs Pseudogout :Risk Factors,Causes, and Symptoms

GOUT

Gout is a common form of arthritis. It is also a painful condition that usually involving the joints. It is caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is formed when the body breaks down purines. The purines can be found in the body and certain foods. When symptoms get worse, it is known as flares. When there are no symptoms, it is known as remissions.

Risk Factors

There are many risk factors for gout.Gout generally develops in men between age 30 to 45 and women age 55 to 70.

Increased Risk for Developing Gout:

  1. Obesity.
  2. High Blood Pressure.
  3. Injury or recent surgery.
  4. Fasting or overeating.
  5. Consuming an excessive amount of alcohol regularly.
  6. Diet high in meat, shellfish, and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup.
  7. Taking medications that can increase blood levels of uric acid.

Causes

Gout occurs when there is an excess of uric acid in the body. The body makes uric acid when it breaks down purines. Purines are found in the body and the foods we eat. Usually, uric acid crystals can build up in joints, fluids, and tissues within the body when there is an excess of uric acid in the body. Hyperuricemia does not always cause gout. In addition, hyperuricemia without gout symptoms does not need to be treated. The sharp, needle-like crystals cause gout. 

Symptoms

  1. Intense joint pain: can occur at any joint but usually affects the big toe.
  2. Inflammation and redness: joint is usually swollen, warm, and red.
  3. Limited movement: not able to move joint normally.
  4. Lingering discomfort: last from few days to a few weeks.

Symptoms develop quite rapidly. It can last for three to ten days. Usually, the symptoms and signs affect a single joint. Gout attacks are very painful. It can happen quite suddenly, often overnight. The pain is typically severe. So, it shows the severity of inflammation in the joint. The medical term for excessive fluid in a joint is a “joint effusion”.

Treatment

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) – reduce swelling and pain. It is used as first-line treatment.
  2. Colchicine – people who cannot tolerate NSAIDs usually take  colchicine.
  3. Steroids (prednisone) – used in people who cannot take NSAIDs or colchicine. Prednisone is linked with an increased risk of a recurrent gout attack.

PSEUDOGOUT

Pseudogout also is a form of arthritis that causes sudden joint pain and swelling. It is caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals (CPPD). 

The sudden attacks of joint pain, swelling, and warmth can occur when you have pseudogout. It can last for days to weeks. It can affect the ankles, feet, shoulders, elbows, wrists, or hands but it mostly affects the knee.

Risk Factors

Besides older age, several other factors also increase the risk for developing pseudogout :

  • Joint trauma due to injury or surgery.
  • Genetics: some people tend to develop pseudogout and more likely to have symptoms at an earlier age.
  • Excess iron: people with a genetic disorder that causes the body to store excess iron.
  • Other disorders: some disorders that affect metabolism or endocrine glands are likely to develop pseudogout.

Causes

Pseudogout occurs when calcium pyrophosphate crystals form in the synovial fluid in the joints. Crystals can also deposit in the cartilage and can cause damage. The formation of crystal in the joint fluid results in swollen joints and acute pain. Older people have higher possibilities of getting pseudogout compared to younger people. In addition, the genetic condition can cause pseudogout because it always occurs in families.

In addition, other factors may include :

  • Low activity of the thyroid gland.
  • Parathyroid glands create too much parathyroid hormone.
  • Excess iron in the blood.
  • High calcium levels in the blood.
  • Lack of magnesium.

Symptoms

Pseudogout most often affects the knees. In addition, it also affects the ankles, wrists, and elbows.

General symptoms may include:

  1. Bouts of joint pain
  2. Swelling of the affected joint
  3. Fluid build up around the joint
  4. Chronic inflammation

Treatment

Until now, no treatment can completely remove or prevent the formation of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals. Therefore, treatment is generally focused on reducing pain and swelling.

  • Joint injection: insert a needle into the affected joint and take off the fluid. So, the crystals, pressure, and pain will be relieved. Injection of a steroid into the joint can decrease the amount of inflammation present.
  • Oral medications such as NSAIDs, prednisone, and colchicine can decrease inflammation and pain.
  • Joint immobilization: avoid lifting heavy objects if it involve the legs.

REFERENCES

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan

Nur Ayuni Mohd Ruduan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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Obesity and Overweight Can Affect Health Problems

Picture of body weight

Obesity and Overweight Can Affect Health Problems

Obesity is a medical condition that occurs when a person carries excess weight that might affect their health!

What are obesity and overweight?

Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal so, excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.

Furthermore, when people eat more calories than usual over and over again, so their bodies will store the extra calories. For instance, fat may build up in their bodies.

Eventually, fat can harm the health of a person. In addition, The term “overweight” or “obese” actually has a higher chance of developing weight-related health problems. It can lead to other diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and sleep apnea. However, weight can come from muscle, bone, fat, or body water.

Above all, these diseases give a bad impact to our body. For instance, people with severe obesity are more likely to have other diseases.

Facts about overweight and obesity

The global WHO estimates, in 2016, therefore, more than 1.9 billion adults above 18 years and older were  overweight in and more than 650 million adults are obese.

Eventually a large number of the world’s population lives in countries where overweight so, their death number of obesity is however more than underweight people.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height. Therefore, It is used to define whether an individual is considered underweight, healthy, overweight and obesity. In addition, often all doctors use BMI to check patient weight at all routine check-ups.

BMIWeight status
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5–24.9Healthy
25.0–29.9Overweight
30.0 and aboveObese

Health problems of being overweight and obesity

Obesity is when your body weight is abnormal. Therefore, it can lead to other diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea, and many more. In other words, these diseases may affect a poor quality of life, disability, or life threatening.

1. Hypertension

Obesity is the one that cause of high blood pressure. But, also known as hypertension. For instance, about three out of four patients with high blood pressure are obesity. Similarly, high blood pressure increases the risk of other conditions such as heart disease like congestive heart failure (CHF) in addition, so it can also cause stroke, and kidney disease.

2. Respiratory Disorders

Obesity and overweight are at higher risk for lung infections, asthma, and other respiratory disorders. In addition, people with obesity, around 50% to 60% therefore, have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Because, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very serious breathing disorder and it block air passageways during sleep. Above all, this blockage causes you to stop breathing for a while.

Mostly, it may attack during your sleep at the night. However, it reduced the amount of oxygen in blood. Because, obstructive sleep apnea can cause sudden cardiac death and stroke because apnea will disrupt the normal sleep cycle, and may cause restless sleep. In addition, fatigue and drowsiness occured.

3. Heart Disease

Heart attack is a higher risk with people that have severe obesity. For instance, it increases the risk of heart failure. However, obesity in addition can associated with arrhythmias that is irregular heartbeats.

4. Diabetes

Obesity is a major cause of Type 2 diabetes. Similarly, when blood sugar is too high in your body and difficult to control, because of high blood sugar. So, type 2 diabetes can risk to death.

There can lead to:

  • Amputations (loss of limbs)
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Blindness
  • Kidney disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Nerve damage and numbness
  • Hard-to-heal infections
  • Impotence

5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Obesity has been associated with higher risk of GERD. In addition, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), and heartburn, because of stomach acid or intestinal secretions lead to oesophagus damage. In other words, heartburn, indigestion, vomiting, coughing especially at night, hoarseness, and belching is the common symptoms.

6. Bone and Joint Damage

Above all, bone and joint damage may affected if you are obesity. However, it can increase the risk of personal injury and accidents. In addition,  joint diseases (arthritis), disc herniation, spinal disorders,  back pain, pseudotumor cerebri, a condition that increase the pressure in the brain and associated with confusion similarly disorientation, headache, and visual problems might occur.

7.Cancer

As body mass index (BMI) increases, so the risk of cancer and death from cancer might be increased.

These cancers include:

  • Endometrial cancer

  • Cervical cancer

  • Ovarian cancer

  • Postmenopausal breast cancer

  • Colorectal cancer

  • Esophageal cancer

  • Pancreatic cancer

  • Gallbladder cancer

  • Liver cancer

  • Kidney cancer

  • Thyroid cancer

  • Prostate cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Leukemia

Above all, for people with severe obesity, the percentage of death increases for all types of cancer. So, the death rate is men is 52% and for women is 62% higher.

Other Conditions

Kidney Disease: High blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and congestive heart failure are major causes of kidney disease and kidney failure. In addition, these conditions are even worse with people that have obesity.

Liver Disease: Obesity is the major cause for fatty liver. For instance, most people with severe obesity have fatty liver disease so, It can cause scarring at the liver, resulting in liver damage. In addition, can lead to cirrhosis.

Other conditions that could become life-threatening:  Therefore, pregnancy women that diagnosed with obesity will increases the chance of having a miscarriage, gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, and others.

What causes it?

The following picture shows causes of obesity.

Causes of obesity

How can overweight and obesity be reduced?

However, overweight and obesity as well as unrelated diseases associated with it, are largely preventable.

People can reduced by:

  • Limit the energy intake of total fats and sugars.
  • Increase diet fruit and vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts.
  • Do regular physical activity everyday, In other words, at least 1 hour a day for children and 2 hours a week for adults.
  • Limit screen time.
  • Get enough good quality sleep. Because, it can  increase your productivity to burn fats.
Picture of obesity prevention

Benefits of being healthy weight

In addition, to reducing the risk of health conditions and maintain a healthy weight provides other benefits:

References:

Obesity, obese, overweight, underweight, weight, health, health problem, calories, fat, bodies, severe, diseases, WHO, men, women, BMI, check-ups, quality, CHF, OSA, sleep, sleep cycle, blockage, breathing, oxygen, cardiac death, stroke, fatigue, drowsiness, heartbeats, irregular, arrhythmias, blood sugar, risk, death, GERD, pregnancy, causes, fats, sugars, physical activity, screen time, diet, limit, benefits, sleep patterns, circulatory system, energy.

                ABOUT THE AUTHOR  

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Raihan Ridzuan

Raihan Ridzuan, Bachelor of Science (Hons) Pharmacology, is staff officer of Mayflax, one of the nation’s leading healthcare and marketing company.

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