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Antibiotics: Basic Information About The Miracle Drug

Antibiotics are powerful drugs, used to fight infections. In fact, if they are properly used, they can even save lives. 

Normally, our immune system can kill bacteria infecting our body. But in certain cases, the number of harmful bacteria is excessive. So, our immune system is not able to fight off the infection. 

Thus, this is where antibiotics play their role.

They work either by destroying or preventing bacteria from reproducing. 

How Antibiotics Work

Antibiotics work either by bactericidal or bacteriostatic

Bactericidal means that it kills bacteria by interfering with the formation of the bacterial cell wall or the cell contents whereas, bacteriostatic means it works by stopping the bacteria from multiplying.

Classification of Antibiotics

There are a few classes of antibiotics, each works in different ways. Here are the main classes and the examples:

ClassExamples
PenicillinsAmoxicillin
CephalosporinsCephalexin
MacrolidesErythromycin, Azithromycin
FluoroquinolonesCiprofloxacin, Levofloxacin,
SulfonamidesCotrimoxazole
TetracyclinesDoxycycline
AminoglycosidesGentamicin

Antibiotics can be taken either by mouth or injection and they usually work a few hours after it is taken. 

Some antibiotics have to be taken before food and some have to be taken after food. So, you should follow the direction given by your doctor or pharmacist. 

Usually, the duration of treatment is around 5 to 14 days. However, it depends on the type of infection you are treating. 

Although you might feel better before finishing the treatment course, you should not stop taking the medication before the course has finished. Doing so might cause resistance to future treatments.

Nevertheless, your doctor will decide the duration of treatment and what’s the best antibiotic for you.

Side Effects

There are many common side effects of this drug, such as:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomachache
  • In women, vaginal yeast infections

There are also uncommon side effects, such as:

  • Abnormal blood clotting
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Deafness

So, if you experience these side effects, do not discontinue treatment. Instead, get your doctors advice immediately.

Antibiotic Resistance

50 years ago, Staphylococcus Aureus was very sensitive towards penicillin.

Over time, the bacteria mutate, producing an enzyme that can break down penicillin and consequently, the drug became ineffective. In fact, this phenomenon is called antibiotic resistance. 

To clarify, it happens when bacteria mutate, developing the ability to fight against drugs used to kill them.

Consequently, certain infections cannot be treated effectively. Mutation, however, can be caused by overuse or incorrect use of this drug.

In conclusion, this miracle drug is important to treat infectious diseases. Since resistance can develop, take this medication only with the doctor’s supervision.

Here at Mayflax provide various types of drugs. Find out more about our services.

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278#what-are-antibiotics
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html
  3. https://www.healthline.com/health/how-do-antibiotics-work#uses

TB antibiotics in reaching targets

Cr. Simone van der Koelen

Source from Sciencedaily.com

Researchers have built up another technique that empowers them to envision how well antibiotics against tuberculosis (TB) reach at their pathogenic targets inside human hosts. The discoveries, published in the journal Science, boost understanding of how antibiotics work and could help direct the development of new antibiotics, which are truly necessary in the fight against drug-resistance.

TB treatment

TB stays as one of the world’s deadliest infectious diseases, with over a million TB-related deaths worldwide every year.

At the point when an individual is infected with Mtb (mycobacteria), their immune system attempts to clear the microorganism by calling upon specialised immune cells called as macrophages that perceive and engulf Mtb. However, the bacteria frequently discover ways to survive and duplicate, causing illness. Patients require at least four antibiotics for at six months to defeat the disease.

It was previously unknown whether antibiotics enter all the compartments of the macrophage where the Mtb hide and duplicate.

The method pioneered in this study, which consolidates three kinds of imaging (correlated light, electron and nano-scale ion microscopy), permits researchers to picture the circulation of TB drugs in Mtb-infected human macrophages at high resolution, for the first time.

A test-case TB drug

Utilizing bedaquiline as an test-case, the group contaminated human macrophages with Mtb, and following up after two days, they treated them with the medication. Their imaging results revealed that bedaquiline accumulated in various compartments of the cell, most eminently, inside lipid droplets.

The bacteria can interact with and consume these lipid droplets. Be that as it may, the group (Crick-led team) didn’t know whether bedaquiline would be moved to the bacteria, or whether the lipid droplets were retaining the antibiotic and keeping it from arriving at the bacteria. Including a chemical that kept lipid droplets from forming significantly decreased the measure of bedaquiline in Mtb, proposing that the lipid drops are responsible for moving antibiotic to the bacteria.

“Now that we can see exactly where antibiotics go once they enter macrophages, we can build up a much clearer picture of how they reach their targets, and harness these observations to design more effective treatments in the future, not only for TB but for other infectious diseases too” says Max Gutierrez, Crick group leader and senior author of the paper.

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